Assessment of Exposure to Lead in Humans and Turtles Living in an Industrial Site in Coatzacoalcos Veracruz, Mexico
- 210 Downloads
The intake of lead from the environment may occur thru various receptors. In order to measure lead levels absorbed, samples were taken from Children who live in three localities surrounding an industrial complex in Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz. Samples were also taken from turtles. Samples were analyzed and results were compared against the general population. In children tested, over 75% of all values were determined to be above CDC’s safety levels of (10 μg/dL). The geometric mean lead concentration was 11.4 μg/dL, which is clearly higher around the industrial complex than in the general population. In turtles, lead blood levels in the exposed population were 2-fold above (24.2 μg/dL) those of turtles in the reference population (10.1 μg/dL). Lead levels observed represent a risk for both human and fauna health.
KeywordsLead Exposure assessment Children Turtles
This work was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Ecology, SEMARNAT (DGICUR-INE) [No. de convenio INE/A1-047/2007]. We also thank the University of Veracruz, campus Coatzacoalcos. Special thanks to Prof. Jesus Guerrero and Biol. Susan Quackenbush for English language editing of the manuscript.
- Altland PD, Brace KC (1962) Red cell life span in the turtle and toad. American J Physiol 203:1188–1190Google Scholar
- ATSDR. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2007) Toxicological profile for lead. p 582Google Scholar
- Bozada L, Páez M (1986) La fauna acuática del Río Coatzacoalcos. Centro de Ecodesarrollo y Universidad Veracruzana, MéxicoGoogle Scholar
- CDC. Centers for Disease Control (1991) Preventing lead poisoning in young children. US Department of Health and Human Services, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
- Gibbons JW (ed) (1990) The slider turtle. In: Life history and ecology of the slider turtle. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, pp 3–18Google Scholar
- Laidlaw M, Mielke H, Filippelli G, Jonhson D, Gonzáles C (2005) Seasonality and children’s blood lead levels: Developing a predictive model using climatic variables and blood lead data from Indianapolis, Indiana, Syracuse and New Orleans, Louisiana (USA). Environ Health Perspect 13:793–800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lovelette CA, Wright E (1996) In Vivo Effects of Pb+2 Upon 5-Aminolevulinate Dehydratase in T. scripta. Abstract papers. Am Chem Soc 211:90Google Scholar
- Meyers-Schöne LL, Walton BT (1994) Turtles as monitors of chemical contaminants in the environment. Rev Environ Contamin Toxicol 135:93–153Google Scholar
- Overman SR, Krajicek JJ (1995) Snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) as biomonitors of lead contamination of the Big River in Missouri old lead belt. Environ Toxicol Chem 14:689–695Google Scholar
- STATISTICA (2001) StatSoft. Version 8.0. StatSoft, Tulsa (OK)Google Scholar
- US EPA. US Environmental Protection Agency (1986) Air quality criteria for lead. http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/cfm/recordisplay.cfm?deid=32647. Accessed 11 Jan 2009