The content and spatial distribution of lead in the aquatic systems in two Chinese tropical cities in Hainan province (Haikou and Sanyan) show an unequal distribution of lead between the urban and the suburban areas. The lead content is significantly higher (72.3 mg/kg) in the urban area than the suburbs (15.0 mg/kg) in Haikou, but quite equal in Sanya (41.6 and 43.9 mg/kg). The frequency distribution histograms suggest that the lead in Haikou and in Sanya derives from different natural and/or anthropogenic sources. The isotopic compositions indicate that urban sediment lead in Haikou originates mainly from anthropogenic sources (automobile exhaust, atmospheric deposition, etc.) which contribute much more than the natural sources, while natural lead (basalt and sea sands) is still dominant in the suburban areas in Haikou. In Sanya, the primary source is natural (soils and sea sands).
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This work contributes to the project “Eco-geochemical survey” (No. 200414200010), financially supported by Hainan Geological Survey. The authors thank to other anonymous reviewers and editor for their constructive suggestions of the manuscript.
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Dong, Z., Bao, Z., Wu, G. et al. Lead Concentration Distribution and Source Tracing of Urban/Suburban Aquatic Sediments in Two Typical Famous Tourist Cities: Haikou and Sanya, China. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 85, 509–514 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-010-0136-4
- Lead isotope
- Aquatic sediments