Preliminary Study on the Induction of Sperm Head Abnormalities in Mice, Mus musculus, Exposed to Radiofrequency Radiations from Global System for Mobile Communication Base Stations

  • A. A. Otitoloju
  • I. A. Obe
  • O. A. Adewale
  • O. A. Otubanjo
  • V. O. Osunkalu


The exposure of male mice to radiofrequency radiations from mobile phone (GSM) base stations at a workplace complex and residential quarters caused 39.78 and 46.03%, respectively, in sperm head abnormalities compared to 2.13% in control group. Statistical analysis of sperm head abnormality score showed that there was a significant (p < 0.05) difference in occurrence of sperm head abnormalities in test animals. The major abnormalities observed were knobbed hook, pin-head and banana-shaped sperm head. The occurrence of the sperm head abnormalities was also found to be dose dependent. The implications of the observed increase occurrence of sperm head abnormalities on the reproductive health of humans living in close proximity to GSM base stations were discussed.


Sperm head Radiofrequency radiation Mobile phones Mutagens 


  1. Abdel-Rassoul G, Abou El-Fateh O, Abou Salem M, Michael A, Farahat F, Batanouny M, Salem E (2007) Neurobehavioral effects among inhabitants around mobile phone base stations. Neuro Toxicol 28:434–440Google Scholar
  2. Aitken R, Bennetts L, Sawyer D, Wiklendt A, King B (2005) Impact of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on DNA integrity in the male germline. Int J Androl 28:171–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bakare AA, Mosuro AA, Osibanjo O (2005) An in vivo evaluation of induction of abnormal sperm morphology in mice by landfill leachates. Mutat Res 582:28–34Google Scholar
  4. Beatty RA (1970) The genetics of the mammalian gamete. Biol Rev 45:2–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bortkiewicz A, Zmyslony M, Szyjkowska A, Gadzicka E (2004) Subjective symptoms reported by people living in the vicinity of cellular phone base stations. Rev Med Pr 55:345–351Google Scholar
  6. Bruce WR, Heddle JA (1979) The mutagenic activity of 61 agents as determined by the micronucleus, Salmonella and sperm abnormality assays. Canada J Genetic Cytol 21:319–334Google Scholar
  7. Dasenbrock C (2005) Animal carcinogenicity studies on radiofrequency fields related to mobile phones and base stations. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 207(2):342–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Diem E, Schwarz C, Adlkofer F, Jahn O, Rudiger H (2005) Non-thermal DNA breakage by mobile-phone radiation (1800 MHz) in human fibroblasts and in transformed GFSH-R17 rat granulose cells in vitro. Mutat Res 583:178–183Google Scholar
  9. ICNIRP–International Commission on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection (1998) Guidelines for limiting exposure to time-varying magnetic and electromagnetic fields up to 300 GHz. Health Phys 74:494–522Google Scholar
  10. Markov M, Kostarakis P (2007) Biological effects of electromagnetic fields. Environmentalist 27:385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Mashevich M, Folkman D, Kesar A, Barbul A, Korenstein R, Jerby E (2003) Exposure of human peripheral blood lymphocytes to electromagnetic fields associated with cellular phones leads to chromosomal instability. Bioelectromagnetics 24:82–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Odeigah PGC (1997) Sperm-head abnormalities and dominant lethal effects of formaldehyde in albino rats. Mutat Res 389:141–148Google Scholar
  13. Otubanjo OA, Mosuro AA (2001) An in vivo evaluation of induction of abnormal sperm morphology by some anthelminthic drugs in mice. Mutat Res 497:131–138Google Scholar
  14. Pacini S, Ruggiero M, Sardi I, Aterini S, Gulisano F, Gulisano M (2002) Exposure to global system for mobile communication (GSM) cellular phone radiofrequency alters gene expression, proliferation and morphology of human skin fibroblasts. Oncol Res 13:19–24Google Scholar
  15. Tice RR, Hook GG, Donner M, McRee DI, Guy AW (2002) Genotoxicity of radiofrequency signals. I. Investigation of DNA damage and micronuclei induction in cultured human blood cells. Bioelectromangnetics 23:113–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Valberg PA, van Deventer E, Repacholi MH (2007) Workgroup report: base stations and wireless networks–radiofrequency (RF) exposures and health consequences. Environ Health Perspect 115(3):416–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Wyrobek AJ, Gordon LA, Burkhart JG, Francis MW, Kapp Jnr RW, Letz G, Malling HG, Topham JC, Whorton M (1983) An evaluation of the mouse sperm morphology test and other sperm tests in non-human mammals. A report of United States EPA Gene-Tox program. Mutat Res 115:1–72Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. A. Otitoloju
    • 1
  • I. A. Obe
    • 1
  • O. A. Adewale
    • 2
  • O. A. Otubanjo
    • 1
  • V. O. Osunkalu
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Zoology, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of LagosLagosNigeria
  2. 2.Department of Physics, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of LagosLagosNigeria
  3. 3.Department of Haematology, College of MedicineUniversity of LagosLagosNigeria

Personalised recommendations