Survey of Aflatoxin M1 in Cow, Goat, Buffalo and Camel Milks in Ismailia-Egypt

  • Mahmoud M. MotaweeEmail author
  • Johann Bauer
  • Donald J. McMahon


Milk from buffalo, cow, goat and camel species was collected in Ismailia in Egypt. Aflatoxin (AFM1) levels were lower than previous surveys, and were influenced by feeding practices. Cows and buffaloes are fed prepared rations and had highest incidence of AFM1. Camels forage freely on available pasture and had lowest AFM1 in their milk. Goats are fed a combination of prepared ration as a supplement to pasture grazing. Most milks (80%, 74%, 66% and 52% of the camel, goat, cow and buffalo milks, respectively) were below the European Union maximum of AFM1 <50 ng/L and all milk samples were <500 ng/L.


Aflatoxin Milk ELISA Egypt 


  1. Balata MA, Bahout AA (1996) Aflatoxin M1 in camel’s milk. Vet Med J Giza-Egypt 44(2A):109–111Google Scholar
  2. Battacone G, Nudda A, Cannas A, Capio Borlino A, Bomboi G, Pulina G (2003) Excretion of aflatoxin M1 in milk of dairy ewes treated with different doses of aflatoxin B1. J Dairy Sci 86:2667–2675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Celik TH, Sarmehmetoglu B, Küplülü O (2005) Aflatoxin M1 contamination in pasteurized milk. Veteinarski Arhiv, Ankara. Turkey 75(1):57–65Google Scholar
  4. Commission Regulation (2006) (EC) No. 1881/2006 of 19 December 2006. Setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. Off J European Union 364:5–24 L077:1–13Google Scholar
  5. Creppy EE (2002) Update of survey, regulation and toxic effect of mycotoxins in Europe. Toxicol Lett 127:19–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Elgerbi AM, Aidoo KE, Candlish AAG, Tester RF (2004) Occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in randomly selected North Africa milk and cheese samples. Food Addit Contam 21:592–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. FDA (2005) Sec. 527.400 Whole milk, low fat milk, skim milk – aflatoxin M1 (CPG 7106.10). Available from Accessed 20 Apr 2009
  8. Kamkar A (2005) A study on the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk produced in Sarab city of Iran. Food Control 16:593–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Motawee M, Meyer M, Bauer J (2004a) Incidence of aflatoxin M1 and B1 in raw milk and some dairy products in Damietta. Egypt J Agric Sci Mansoura Univ 29(2):711–718Google Scholar
  10. Motawee M, Meyer M, Bauer J (2004b) Occurrence of aflatoxin M1 and B1 in milk and some milk products in Mansoura. Egypt J Agric Sci Mansoura Univ 29(2):719–725Google Scholar
  11. Oveisi MR, Jannat B, Sadeghi N, Hajimahmoodi M, Nikzad A (2007) Presence of aflatoxin M1 in milk and infant milk products in Tehran, Iran. Food Control 18:1216–1218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Price RL, Paulson JH, Lough OG, Gingg C, Kurtz AG (1985) Aflatoxin conversion by dairy cattle consuming naturally contaminated whole cottonseed. J Food Prot 48:11–15, 20Google Scholar
  13. Sadeghi N, Oveisi MR, Jannat B, Hajimahmoodi M, Bonyani H, Jannat F (2009) Incidence of aflatoxin M1 in human breast milk in Tehran, Iran. Food Control 20:75–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Salem DA (2002) Natural occurrence of aflatoxin in feedstuffs and milk of dairy farm in Assuit Province, Egypt. Wien Tierarztl Monatsschr 89:86–91Google Scholar
  15. Stoloff L (1980) Aflatoxin M1 in perspective. J Food Prot 43:226–230Google Scholar
  16. Unusan N (2006) Occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in UHT milk in Turkey. Food Chem Toxicol 44:1897–1900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Veldman A, Meijst JAC, Borggreve GJ, Heeres-van der Tol JJ (1992) Carry over of aflatoxin from cows’ food to milk. Anim Prod 55:163–168Google Scholar
  18. Zinedine A, Gonzalez-Osnaya L, Soriano JM, Molto J, Idrissi L, Manes J (2007) Presence of aflatoxin M1 in pasteurized milk from Morocco. Int J Food Microbiol 114:25–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mahmoud M. Motawee
    • 1
    Email author
  • Johann Bauer
    • 2
  • Donald J. McMahon
    • 3
  1. 1.National Organization for Drug Control and ResearchCairoEgypt
  2. 2.Lehrstuhl für TierhygieneTechnische Universität MünchenFreisingGermany
  3. 3.Western Dairy CenterUtah State UniversityLoganUSA

Personalised recommendations