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Norfluoxetine Induces Spawning and Parturition in Estuarine and Freshwater Bivalves

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Fluoxetine, a commonly prescribed antidepressant (Prozac), has been detected in sewage effluent. Its active metabolite norfluoxetine is more potent and has been detected in sewage influent and in fish tissues. We tested the effects of norfluoxetine on spawning and parturition in bivalves. Norfluoxetine induced significant spawning in zebra mussels and dark false mussels at concentrations as low as 5 μM. Norfluoxetine induced significant parturition in fingernail clams at 10 μM. Fluoxetine also induced spawning in dark false mussels at concentrations as low as 100 nM. Implications for environmental impacts of norfluoxetine and fluoxetine on native and exotic bivalves are discussed.

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We thank the Biology Department and Office of the Provost of Gettysburg College for funding.

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Correspondence to P. P. Fong.

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Fong, P.P., Molnar, N. Norfluoxetine Induces Spawning and Parturition in Estuarine and Freshwater Bivalves. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 81, 535 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-008-9558-7

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  • Norfluoxetine
  • Fluoxetine
  • Spawning
  • Bivalves