The effects of municipal wastewater irrigation on the accumulation of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Cu and Ni) in soil and vegetables were investigated by monitoring wastewater-irrigated agricultural field of Titagarh, 24-Parganas (North), West Bengal, India. The mean concentrations of Pb, Ni, Cu in the irrigation water and the mean Cd content in soil were much above the recommended level. The concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr and Ni in all the examined vegetables were beyond the safe limits. The study reveals that heavy metal-contaminated vegetables grown in wastewater-irrigated areas may pose public health hazards.
Wastewater Irrigation Heavy metal Contamination
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
The authors gratefully acknowledge University of Kalyani for providing financial support and necessary facilities for the research work.
Allen SE, Grimshaw HM, Rowland AP (1986) Chemical analysis. In: Moore PD, Chapman SB (eds) Methods in plant ecology. Blackwell Scientific Publication, Oxford, London, pp 285–344Google Scholar
APHA (American Public Health Association) (1985) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. American Public Health Association, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
Awashthi SK (2000) Prevention of food Adulteration Act no 37 of 1954.Central and State rules as amended for 1999, 3rd edn, Ashoka Law House, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
Dogheim SM, Ashraf El MM, Alla SAG, Khorshid MA, Fahmy SM (2004) Pesticides and heavy metals levels in Egyptian leafy vegetables and some aromatic medicinal plants. Food Addit Contam 21:323–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liu WH, Zhao JZ, Ouyang ZY, Söderlund L, Liu GH (2005) Impacts of sewage irrigation on heavy metal distribution and contamination in Beijing, China. Environ Int 31:805–812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Liu WX, Li HH, Li SR, Wang YW (2006) Heavy metal accumulation in edible vegetables cultivated in agricultural soil in the suburb of Zhengzhou city, People’s Republic of China. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 76:163–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mapanda F, Mangwayana EN, Nyamangara J, Giller KE (2005) The effect of long-term irrigation using wastewater on heavy metal contents of soils under vegetables in Harare, Zimbabwe. Agric Ecosyst Environ 107:151–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nan Z, Li J, Zhang C, Cheng G (2002) Cadmium and zinc interaction and their transfer in soil-crop system under actual field conditions. Sci Total Environ 285:187–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pescod MB (1992) Wastewater treatment and use in agriculture. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 47, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
Rattan RK, Dutta SP, Chandra S, Saharaan N (2002) Heavy metals in environments-Indian scenario. Fertil News 47:21–40Google Scholar
Rattan RK, Datta SP, Chhonkar PK, Suribabu K, Singh AK (2005) Long-term impact of irrigation with sewage effluents on heavy metal content in soils, crops and ground water-a case study. Agric Ecosyst Environ 109:310–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reilly C (1991) Metal contamination of food, 2nd edn. Elsevier Applied Science, LondonGoogle Scholar
Sharma RK, Agarwal M, Marshall F (2007) Heavy metal contamination of soil and vegetables in suburban areas of Varanasi, India. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 66:258–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tandi NK, Nyamangara J, Bangira C (2004) Environmental and potential health effects of growing leafy vegetables on soil irrigated using sewage sludge and effluent: a case of Zn and Cu. J Environ Sci Health B 39:461–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Trichopoulos D (1997) Epidemiology of cancer.In: DeVita VT (ed) Cancer, principles and practice of oncology. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, pp 231–258Google Scholar
Türkdoğan MK, Kilicel F, Kara K, Tuncer I, Uygan I (2002) Heavy metals in soil, vegetables and fruits in the endemic upper gastrointestinal cancer region of Turkey. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 13:175–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Voutsa D, Grimanis A, Samara C (1996) Trace elements in vegetables grown in an industrial areas in relation to soil and air particulate matter. Environ Pollut 94:325–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yadav RK, Goyal B, Sharma RK, Dubey SK, Minhas PS (2002) Post irrigation impact of domestic sewage effluent on composition of soils, crops and ground water-a case study. Environ Int 28:481–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar