Cannabis use in individuals at clinical high-risk for psychosis: a comprehensive review

  • Megan S. Farris
  • Mohammed K. Shakeel
  • Jean AddingtonEmail author



The objectives of this review were to understand the prevalence of cannabis use and how cannabis is associated with transition to psychosis, symptoms, cognition, trauma and family history in clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis individuals.


A systematic literature review was conducted to find studies that examined cannabis use in CHR individuals, with no limitations on the geographical area, and included publications up to November 2018. Studies were screened for inclusion based on detailed criteria, and data were extracted on cannabis use and associated outcomes. A quantitative synthesis by meta-analysis was performed where appropriate, otherwise, a qualitative synthesis was conducted.


Overall, 36 studies met inclusion criteria with an average age of 20.1 years and 58.4% males. Prevalence of lifetime cannabis use was 48.7%, whereas current cannabis use was 25.8% and the prevalence of cannabis use disorder/abuse or dependence was 14.9% across the studies. All cannabis use results had statistically significant heterogeneity ranging from 75.7 to 92.8%. The most commonly reported association with cannabis use was transition to psychosis, although the pooled relative risk (RR) was not statistically significant (RR = 1.11, 95% confidence interval = 0.89–1.37). For all other outcomes including symptoms, cognition, trauma, and family history, the evidence was limited, and therefore, the results were synthesized qualitatively.


Almost half of CHR individuals have ever used cannabis. However, cannabis use has not been thoroughly researched regarding frequency and dose of use, and how other factors, such as symptoms, are associated with cannabis in CHR individuals.


Cannabis Clinical high risk Psychosis Systematic review Meta-analysis 



This work was supported by NIH Grant RO1MH105178 awarded to Dr. Jean Addington.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical standards

The manuscript does not contain clinical studies or patient data.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Department of Psychiatry, Mathison Centre for Mental Health Research and EducationUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada

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