Associations of state-level rates of depression and fatal opioid overdose in the United States, 2011–2015
To assess the relationship between state-level depression and opioid overdose deaths between 2011 and 2015 in the United States.
We assessed the association between percent of state populations reporting depression diagnoses and number of opioid analgesic-related deaths using negative binomial generalized estimating equations.
A 1% point increase in state-level depression diagnoses was associated with a 26% (95% CI 1–58%) increase in opioid analgesic-related deaths.
Addressing depression in the provider–patient relationship may be important, as may be addressing the mental health provider shortage in the United States.
KeywordsDepression Mental health Opioid Overdose
This work was supported by the University of Colorado CU Science Discovery Program.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.
- 2.Blau M (2017) STAT forecast: opioids could kill nearly 500,000 Americans in the next decade. https://www.statnews.com/2017/06/27/opioid-deaths-forecast/. Accessed 7 Jul 2017
- 9.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2017) CDC Wonder. https://wonder.cdc.gov/. Accessed 7 Jul 2017
- 11.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2017) Behavioral risk factor surveillance system. https://www.cdc.gov/brfss/. Accessed 1 Sept 2017
- 12.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2017) BRFSS prevalence and trends data. https://www.cdc.gov/brfss/brfssprevalence/. Accessed 5 Jun 2017
- 13.United States Census Bureau (2017) American factfinder. https://factfinder.census.gov. Accessed 7 Jul 2017
- 14.United States Census Bureau (2017) Guidance for data users. https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/acs/guidance.html. Accessed 18 Jun 2018
- 15.National Conference of State Legislatures (2017) State medical marijuana laws. http://www.ncsl.org/research/health/state-medical-marijuana-laws.aspx. Accessed 19 Sept 2017
- 16.Bureau of Labor Statistics (2017) Local area unemployment statistics. https://www.bls.gov/web/laus/laumstrk.htm. Accessed 16 Jun 2017
- 18.The Henry J Kaiser Family Foundation (2016) Mental health care health professional shortage areas (HPSAs). http://www.kff.org/other/state-indicator/mental-health-care-health-professional-shortage-areas-hpsas/. Accessed 7 Jul 2017