The pervasive effect of youth self-report of hunger on depression over 6 years of follow up
- 425 Downloads
We used longitudinal data to clarify the association between self-report of hunger and subsequent depression risk among youth and young adults, accounting for other risk factors.
Youth self-report of ever experiencing hunger data were collected from cycles 4–6 of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth cohort of Canadian youth 16 years and older (n = 4139). Data on depressive symptoms (CES-D 12) were collected over three cycles (2004–2009, cycles 6–8). We used multivariable regression based on generalized estimating equations (GEE) to examine prior youth hunger on later depression risk, adjusting for time-stable, time-varying, and lagged variables (e.g., depressive symptoms in previous cycle), thereby clarifying the temporal relationship.
The prevalence of youth hunger experience and depression risk reached 5.9 and 15.0%, respectively. The adjusted odds ratio of depression for participants reporting hunger was 2.31 (95% CI 1.54, 3.46) and changed little [2.17 (95% CI 1.29, 3.67)] after accounting for previous CES-D 12 scores, suggesting a temporal relationship in which hunger contributes to depression risk. Unlike never-hungry youth, depression in ever-hungry youth remained comparatively elevated over time.
Our models support an independent and temporal relationship between youth self-report of hunger and depression in adolescence and young adulthood.
KeywordsHunger Depression Youth Longitudinal Generalized estimating equation (GEE)
This study was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research Operating Grants SEC-117126 and ROH-115208. We thank Genevieve Jessiman-Perreault for analytic assistance.
- 1.Pearson C, Janz T, Ali J (2013) Mental and substance use disorders in Canada. Statistics Canada Catalogue No. 82-624-X. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/82-624-x/2013001/article/11855-eng.htm. Accessed 2 December 2015
- 2.World Health Organization (WHO) (2016). Depression Fact Sheet. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs369/en/. Accessed 29 June 2016.
- 5.Whiteford HA, Degenhardt L, Rehm J, Baxter AJ, Ferrari AJ, Erskine HE, Charlson FJ, Norman RE, Flaxman AD, Johns N Burstein R, Murray CJ, Vos T (2010) Global burden of disease attributable to mental and substance use disorders: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study. Lancet 382(9904):1575–1586. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)61611-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 12.McLaughlin KA, Green JG, Gruber MJ, Sampson NA, Zaslavsky AM, Kessler RC (2012) Childhood adversities and first onset of psychiatric disorders in a national sample of US adolescents. Arch Gen Psychiatry 69(11):1151–1160. doi: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.2277 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 14.Najman JM, Hayatbakhsh MR, Clavarino A, Bor W, O’Callaghan MJ, Williams GM (2010) Family poverty over the early life course and recurrent adolescent and young adult anxiety and depression: a longitudinal study. Am J Public Health 100(9):1719–1723. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2009.180943 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 17.Anderson SA (1990) Core indicators of nutritional state for difficult-to-sample populations. J Nutr 120(Suppl 11):1559–1600Google Scholar
- 18.Health Canada (2007) Income-related household food security in Canada. Catalogue No. H164-42/2007E. http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/surveill/nutrition/commun/income_food_sec-sec_alim-eng.php. Accessed 2 December 2015
- 20.Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) (2008) An introduction to the basic concepts of food security. http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/al936e/al936e00.pdf. Accessed 2 December 2015
- 21.McIntyre L, Walsh G, Connor SK (2001) A follow-up study of child hunger in Canada. Applied Research Branch Strategy Policy Human Resources Development Canada. Catalogue No. MP32-28/01-1-2E. http://publications.gc.ca/site/archivee-archived.html?, http://publications.gc.ca/collections/Collection/MP32-28-01-1-2E.pdf. Accessed 2 December 2015
- 22.United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) (2015) Definitions of food security. http://www.ers.usda.gov/topics/food-nutrition-assistance/food-security-in-the-us/definitions-of-food-security.aspx. Accessed 2 December 2015
- 23.Wunderlich GS, Norwood JL (2006) Food insecurity and hunger in the United States: an assessment of the measure. The National Academies Press, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
- 38.Melchior M, Chastang JF, Falissard B, Galéra C, Tremblay RE, Côté SM, Boivin M (2012) Food insecurity and children’s mental health: a prospective birth cohort study. PLoS One 7(12):e52615. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0052615
- 41.Patten SB, Wildes TCR, Williams JVA, Lavorato DH, el-Guebaly N, Wild TC, Colman I, Bulloch AGM (2016) Childhood adversity and subsequent mental health status in adulthood: Screening for associations using two linked surveys. Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci 25(2):160–170 doi: 10.1017/S2045796015000104 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 48.Statistics Canada (2010) National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, Cycle 8 – User Guide. http://www23.statcan.gc.ca/imdb-bmdi/document/4450_D4_T9_V8-eng.pdf. Accessed 26 April 2016
- 49.Statistics Canada (2010) National longitudinal survey of children and youth (NLSCY). http://www23.statcan.gc.ca/imdb/p2SV.pl?Function=getSurvey&SDDS=4450. Accessed 2 December 2015
- 50.Statistics Canada (2015) Labour Force Survey. http://www.statcan.gc.ca/eng/survey/household/3701. Accessed 2 December 2015
- 51.Statistics Canada (2010). National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth Survey (NLSCY). http://www23.statcan.gc.ca:81/imdb/p2SV.pl?Function=getSurvey&SDDS=4450&lang=en&db=imdb&adm=8&dis=2#a1. Accessed 27 April 2016
- 62.Diggle PJ, Heagerty P, Liang K, Zeger SL (2002) Analysis of Longitudinal Data. 2nd edition. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
- 63.Odueyungbo A, Browne D, Akhtar-Danesh N, Thabane L (2008) Comparison of generalized estimating equations and quadratic inference functions using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) database. BMC Med Res Methodol 8:28. doi: 10.1186/1471-2288-8-28 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 68.Bickel G, Nord M, Price C, Hamilton W, Cook J (2000) Guide to measuring household food insecurity. United States Department of Agriculture. Washington, D.C. http://www.fns.usda.gov/sites/default/files/FSGuide.pdf. Accessed 26 April 2016
- 71.Gonzalez A, Boyle MH, Kyu HH, Georgiades K, Duncan L, MacMillan HL (2012) Childhood and family influences on depression, chronic physical conditions, and their comorbidity: Findings from the Ontario Child Health Study. J Psychiatr Res 46:1475–1482. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2012.08.004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 79.Evans GW, Kim P (2013) Childhood poverty, chronic stress, self-regulation, and coping. Child Dev Perspect 7(1):43–48. doi: 10.1111/cdep.12013
- 81.Government of Canada (2015) Child and family benefits. http://www.cra-arc.gc.ca/bnfts/menu-eng.html. Accessed 2 December 2015
- 82.Government of Canada (2016) Growing the Middle Class. Federal Budget 2016 http://www.budget.gc.ca/2016/docs/plan/budget2016-en.pdf. Accessed 26 April 2016