Advertisement

Using virtual reality to investigate psychological processes and mechanisms associated with the onset and maintenance of psychosis: a systematic review

  • Lucia R. Valmaggia
  • Fern Day
  • Mar Rus-Calafell
Invited Reviews

Abstract

Purpose

In the last decade researchers have embraced virtual reality to explore the psychological processes and mechanisms that are involved in the onset and maintenance of psychosis. A systematic review was conducted to synthesise the evidence of using virtual reality to investigate these mechanisms.

Methods

Web of Science, PsycINFO, Embase, and Medline were searched. Reference lists of collected papers were also visually inspected to locate any relevant cited journal articles. In total 6001 articles were potentially eligible for inclusion; of these, 16 studies were included in the review.

Results

The review identified studies investigating the effect of interpersonal sensitivity, childhood bullying victimisation, physical assault, perceived ethnic discrimination, social defeat, population density and ethnic density on the real-time appraisal of VR social situations. Further studies demonstrated the potential of VR to investigate paranoid ideation, anomalous experiences, self-confidence, self-comparison, physiological activation and behavioural response.

Conclusions

The reviewed studies suggest that VR can be used to investigate psychological processes and mechanisms associated with psychosis. Implications for further experimental research, as well as for assessment and clinical practise are discussed. The present review has been registered in the PROSPERO register: CRD42016038085.

Keywords

Virtual reality Adverse life events Daily stressors Stress sensitivity, psychosis 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We acknowledge the NIHR Biomedical Research Centre for Mental Health at the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust and Institute of Psychiatry King’s College London for their support.

References

  1. 1.
    Garety PA, Kuipers E, Fowler D, Freeman D, Bebbington PE (2001) A cognitive model of the positive symptoms of psychosis. Psychol Med 31(2):189–195CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Garety PA, Bebbington P, Fowler D, Freeman D, Kuipers E (2007) Implications for neurobiological research of cognitive models of psychosis: a theoretical paper. Psychol Med 37(10):1377–1391. doi: 10.1017/S003329170700013X CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Freeman D, Garety PA, Kuipers E, Fowler D, Bebbington PE (2002) A cognitive model of persecutory delusions. Br J Clin Psychol/Br Psychol Soc 41(Pt 4):331–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bentall RP, Fernyhough C, Morrison AP, Lewis S, Corcoran R (2007) Prospects for a cognitive-developmental account of psychotic experiences. Br J Clin Psychol/Br Psychol Soc 46(Pt 2):155–173. doi: 10.1348/014466506X123011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Morrison AP, Wells A (2003) A comparison of metacognitions in patients with hallucinations, delusions, panic disorder, and non-patient controls. Behav Res Ther 41(2):251–256CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Van Dam DS, Van Nierop M, Viechtbauer W, Velthorst E, Van Winkel R, Bruggeman R, Cahn W, De Haan L, Kahn RS, Meijer CJ, Myin-Germeys I, Van Os J, Wiersma D (2015) Childhood abuse and neglect in relation to the presence and persistence of psychotic and depressive symptomatology. Psychol Med 45(7):1363–1377. doi: 10.1017/S0033291714001561 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pariante CM (2015) Psychoneuroimmunology or immunopsychiatry? Lancet Psychiatry 2(3):197–199. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(15)00042-5 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Aiello G, Horowitz M, Hepgul N, Pariante CM, Mondelli V (2012) Stress abnormalities in individuals at risk for psychosis: a review of studies in subjects with familial risk or with “at risk” mental state. Psychoneuroendocrinology 37(10):1600–1613. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2012.05.003 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Walker E, Mittal V, Tessner K (2008) Stress and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis in the developmental course of schizophrenia. Annu Rev Clin Psychol 4:189–216. doi: 10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.4.022007.141248 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Day FL, Valmaggia LR, Mondelli V, Papadopoulos A, Papadopoulos I, Pariante CM, McGuire P (2014) Blunted cortisol awakening response in people at ultra high risk of developing psychosis. Schizophr Res 158(1–3):25–31. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2014.06.041 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lazarus RS (1991) Progress on a cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotion. Am Psychol 46(8):819–834CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Corcoran C, Walker E, Huot R, Mittal V, Tessner K, Kestler L, Malaspina D (2003) The stress cascade and schizophrenia: etiology and onset. Schizophr Bull 29(4):671–692CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zubin J, Spring B (1977) Vulnerability–a new view of schizophrenia. J Abnorm Psychol 86(2):103–126CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lederbogen F, Kirsch P, Haddad L, Streit F, Tost H, Schuch P, Wust S, Pruessner JC, Rietschel M, Deuschle M, Meyer-Lindenberg A (2011) City living and urban upbringing affect neural social stress processing in humans. Nature 474(7352):498–501. http://nature.com/nature/journal/v474/n7352/abs/nature10190-f1.2.html (supplementary-information)
  15. 15.
    Allardyce J, Gilmour H, Atkinson J, Rapson T, Bishop J, McCreadie RG (2005) Social fragmentation, deprivation and urbanicity: relation to first-admission rates for psychoses. Br J Psychiatry 187:401–4016CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Vassos E, Pedersen CB, Murray RM, Collier DA, Lewis CM (2012) Meta-analysis of the association of urbanicity with schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 38(6):1118–1123. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbs096 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Morgan C, Hutchinson G (2010) The social determinants of psychosis in migrant and ethnic minority populations: a public health tragedy. Psychol Med 40(5):705–709. doi: 10.1017/S0033291709005546 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Seeman MV (2011) Canada: psychosis in the immigrant Caribbean population. Int J Soc Psychiatry 57(5):462–470. doi: 10.1177/0020764010365979 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Boydell J, van Os J, McKenzie K, Allardyce J, Goel R, McCreadie RG, Murray RM (2001) Incidence of schizophrenia in ethnic minorities in London: ecological study into interactions with environment. BMJ 323(7325):1336–1338CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Das-Munshi J, Becares L, Boydell JE, Dewey ME, Morgan C, Stansfeld SA, Prince MJ (2012) Ethnic density as a buffer for psychotic experiences: findings from a national survey (EMPIRIC). Br J Psychiatry 201(4):282–290. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.111.102376 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Karlsen S, Nazroo JY, McKenzie K, Bhui K, Weich S (2005) Racism, psychosis and common mental disorder among ethnic minority groups in England. Psychol Med 35(12):1795–1803. doi: 10.1017/S0033291705005830 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Veling W, Selten JP, Susser E, Laan W, Mackenbach JP, Hoek HW (2007) Discrimination and the incidence of psychotic disorders among ethnic minorities in The Netherlands. Int J Epidemiol 36(4):761–768. doi: 10.1093/ije/dym085 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Stowkowy J, Liu L, Cadenhead KS, Cannon TD, Cornblatt BA, McGlashan TH, Perkins DO, Seidman LJ, Tsuang MT, Walker EF, Woods SW, Bearden CE, Mathalon DH, Addington J (2016) Early traumatic experiences, perceived discrimination and conversion to psychosis in those at clinical high risk for psychosis. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatric Epidemiol 51(4):497–503. doi: 10.1007/s00127-016-1182-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lereya ST, Copeland WE, Costello EJ, Wolke D (2015) Adult mental health consequences of peer bullying and maltreatment in childhood: two cohorts in two countries. Lancet Psychiatry 2(6):524–531. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(15)00165-0 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Arseneault L, Cannon M, Fisher HL, Polanczyk G, Moffitt TE, Caspi A (2011) Childhood trauma and children’s emerging psychotic symptoms: a genetically sensitive longitudinal cohort study. Am J Psychiatry 168(1):65–72. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2010.10040567 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lukoff D, Snyder K, Ventura J, Nuechterlein KH (1984) Life events, familial stress, and coping in the developmental course of schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 10(2):258–292CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Norman RMG, Malla AK (1993) Stressful life events and schizophrenia. II: Conceptual and methodological issues. Br J Psychiatry 162 (FEB.):166–174Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Myin-Germeys I, Krabbendam L, Delespaul PAEG, Van Os J (2003) Do life events have their effect on psychosis by influencing the emotional reactivity to daily life stress? Psychol Med 33(2):327–333CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lee SY, Kim KR, Park JY, Park JS, Kim B, Kang JI, Lee E, An SK, Kwon JS (2011) Coping strategies and their relationship to psychopathologies in people at ultra high-risk for psychosis and with schizophrenia. J Nerv Ment Dis 199(2):106–110. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e3182083b96 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Jalbrzikowski M, Sugar CA, Zinberg J, Bachman P, Cannon TD, Bearden CE (2014) Coping styles of individuals at clinical high risk for developing psychosis. Early intervention in psychiatry 8(1):68–76. doi: 10.1111/eip.12005 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Masillo A, Day F, Laing J, Howes O, Fusar-Poli P, Byrne M, Bhattacharyya S, Fiori Nastro P, Girardi P, McGuire PK, Valmaggia LR (2012) Interpersonal sensitivity in the at-risk mental state for psychosis. Psychol Med 42(9):1835–1845. doi: 10.1017/S0033291711002996 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Boyce P, Parker G (1989) Development of a scale to measure interpersonal sensitivity. Australasian Psychiatry 23(3):341–351Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Masillo A, Valmaggia LR, Saba R, Brandizzi M, Lindau JF, Solfanelli A, Curto M, Narilli F, Telesforo L, Kotzalidis GD, Di Pietro D, D’Alema M, Girardi P, Fiori Nastro P (2016) Interpersonal sensitivity and functioning impairment in youth at ultra-high risk for psychosis. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 25(1):7–16. doi: 10.1007/s00787-015-0692-6 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Tiernan B, Tracey R, Shannon C (2014) Paranoia and self-concepts in psychosis: a systematic review of the literature. Psychiatry Res 216(3):303–313. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2014.02.003 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lincoln TM, Mehl S, Ziegler M, Kesting ML, Exner C, Rief W (2010) Is fear of others linked to an uncertain sense of self? The relevance of self-worth, interpersonal self-concepts, and dysfunctional beliefs to paranoia. Behav Ther 41(2):187–197. doi: 10.1016/j.beth.2009.02.004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    van Os J, Linscott RJ, Myin-Germeys I, Delespaul P, Krabbendam L (2009) A systematic review and meta-analysis of the psychosis continuum: evidence for a psychosis proneness-persistence-impairment model of psychotic disorder. Psychol Med 39(2):179–195. doi: 10.1017/S0033291708003814 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kelleher I, Devlin N, Wigman JT, Kehoe A, Murtagh A, Fitzpatrick C, Cannon M (2014) Psychotic experiences in a mental health clinic sample: implications for suicidality, multimorbidity and functioning. Psychol Med 44(8):1615–1624. doi: 10.1017/S0033291713002122 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kelleher I, Wigman JT, Harley M, O’Hanlon E, Coughlan H, Rawdon C, Murphy J, Power E, Higgins NM, Cannon M (2015) Psychotic experiences in the population: association with functioning and mental distress. Schizophr Res 165(1):9–14. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2015.03.020 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wigman JT, Devlin N, Kelleher I, Murtagh A, Harley M, Kehoe A, Fitzpatrick C, Cannon M (2014) Psychotic symptoms, functioning and coping in adolescents with mental illness. BMC Psychiatry 14:97. doi: 10.1186/1471-244X-14-97 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Fusar-Poli P, Borgwardt S, Bechdolf A, Addington J, Riecher-Rossler A, Schultze-Lutter F, Keshavan M, Wood S, Ruhrmann S, Seidman LJ, Valmaggia L, Cannon T, Velthorst E, De Haan L, Cornblatt B, Bonoldi I, Birchwood M, McGlashan T, Carpenter W, McGorry P, Klosterkotter J, McGuire P, Yung A (2013) The psychosis high-risk state: a comprehensive state-of-the-art review. JAMA Psychiatry 70(1):107–120. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.269 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Bentall RP, de Sousa P, Varese F, Wickham S, Sitko K, Haarmans M, Read J (2014) From adversity to psychosis: pathways and mechanisms from specific adversities to specific symptoms. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 49(7):1011–1022. doi: 10.1007/s00127-014-0914-0 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Freeman D, Garety PA (2000) Comments on the content of persecutory delusions: does the definition need clarification? Br J Clin Psychol/Br Psychol Soc 39(Pt 4):407–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Freeman D, Pugh K, Antley A, Slater M, Bebbington P, Gittins M, Dunn G, Kuipers E, Fowler D, Garety P (2008) Virtual reality study of paranoid thinking in the general population. Br J Psychiatry: J Ment Sci 192(4):258–263. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.107.044677 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Garety PA, Everitt BS, Hemsley DR (1988) The characteristics of delusions: a cluster analysis of deluded subjects. Eur Arch Psychiatry Neurol Sci 237(2):112–114CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Freeman D (2007) Suspicious minds: the psychology of persecutory delusions. Clin Psychol Rev 27(4):425–457. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2006.10.004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Myin-Germeys I, Oorschot M, Collip D, Lataster J, Delespaul P, van Os J (2009) Experience sampling research in psychopathology: opening the black box of daily life. Psychol Med 39(9):1533–1547. doi: 10.1017/S0033291708004947 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Reininghaus U, Depp CA, Myin-Germeys I (2016) Ecological interventionist causal models in psychosis: targeting psychological mechanisms in daily life. Schizophr Bull 42(2):264–269. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbv193 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Rizzo A, Buckwalter G, Forbell E, Reist C, Difede J, Rothbaum BO, Lange B, Koenig S, Talbot S (2013) Virtual reality applications to address the wounds of war. Psychiatric Annals 43(3):123–138. doi: 10.3928/00485713-20130306-08 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Slater M (2004) Presence and emotions. Cyberpsychol Behav 7 (1):121. doi: 10.1089/109493104322820200 (author reply 123)
  50. 50.
    Parsons TD, Courtney CG, Arizmendi B, Dawson M (2011) Virtual reality stroop task for neurocognitive assessment. Stud Health Technol Inform 163:433–439PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Seidel RJ, Chatelier PR (2013) Virtual reality, training’s future?: perspectives on virtual reality and related emerging technologies, vol 6. Springer Science & Business MediaGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Rizzo A, Kim GJ (2005) A SWOT analysis of the field of virtual reality rehabilitation and therapy. Presence, Teleperators Virtual Environ 14:119–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Thomas BH, Ciliska D, Dobbins M, Micucci SA (2004) A Process for Systematically Reviewing the Literature: providing the Research Evidence for Public Health Nursing Interventions. Worldviews Evid Based Nurs 1(3):176–184CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Freeman D (2008) Studying and treating schizophrenia using virtual reality: a new paradigm. Schizophr Bull 34(4):605–610CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Valmaggia LR, Day FL, Kroll J, Laing J, Byrne M, Fusar-Poli P, McGuire P (2015) Bullying victimisation and paranoid ideation in people at ultra high risk for psychosis. Schizophr Res 168(1–2):68–73CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Freeman D, Antley A, Ehlers A, Dunn G, Thompson C, Vorontsova N, Garety P, Kuipers E, Glucksman E, Slater M (2014) The use of immersive Virtual Reality (VR) to predict the occurrence 6 months later of paranoid thinking and posttraumatic stress symptoms assessed by self-report and interviewer methods: a study of individuals who have been physically assaulted. Psychol Assess 26(3):841–847CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Freeman D, Thompson C, Vorontsova N, Dunn G, Carter LA, Garety P, Kuipers E, Slater M, Antley A, Glucksman E, Ehlers A (2013) Paranoia and post-traumatic stress disorder in the months after a physical assault: a longitudinal study examining shared and differential predictors. Psychol Med 43(12):2673–2684CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Shaikh M, Ellett L, Dutt A, Day F, Laing K, Kroll J, Pterella S, McGuire P, Valmaggia L (2016) Perceived ethnic discrimination and persecutory paranoia in individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis. Psychiatry Res 241:309–314Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Valmaggia LR, Day F, Garety P, Freeman D, Antley A, Slater M, Swapp D, Myin-Germeys I, McGuire P (2015) Social defeat predicts paranoid appraisals in people at high risk for psychosis. Schizophr Res 168(1–2):16–22CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Fornells-Ambrojo M, Elenbaas M, Barker C, Swapp D, Navarro X, Rovira A, Sanahuja JMT, Slater M (2016) Hypersensitivity to contingent behavior in paranoia: a new virtual reality paradigm. J Nerv Ment Dis 204(2):148–152CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Freeman D, Slater M, Bebbington PE, Garety PA, Kuipers E, Fowler D, Met A, Read CM, Jordan J, Vinayagamoorthy V (2003) Can virtual reality be used to investigate persecutory ideation? J Nerv Ment Dis 191(8):509–514CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Freeman D, Garety PA, Bebbington P, Slater M, Kuipers E, Fowler D, Green C, Jordan J, Ray K, Dunn G (2005) The psychology of persecutory ideation II: a virtual reality experimental study. J Nerv Ment Dis 193(5):309–315CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Valmaggia LR, Freeman D, Green C, Garety P, Swapp D, Antley A, Prescott C, Fowler D, Kuipers E, Bebbington P, Slater M, Broome M, McGuire PK (2007) Virtual reality and paranoid ideations in people with an ‘at-risk mental state’ for psychosis. Br J Psychiatry 191(SUPPL. 51):s63–s68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Freeman D, Pugh K, Vorontsova N, Antley A, Slater M (2010) Testing the continuum of delusional beliefs: an experimental study using virtual reality. J Abnorm Psychol 119(1):83–92CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Veling W, Brinkman WP, Dorrestijn E, van der Gaag M (2014) Virtual reality experiments linking social environment and psychosis: a pilot study. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw 17(3):191–195CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Veling W, Pot-Kolder R, Counotte J, van Os J, van der Gaag M (2016) Environmental Social Stress. A Virtual Reality Study. Schizophr Bull, Paranoia and Psychosis Liability. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbw031 Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Atherton S, Antley A, Evans N, Cernis E, Lister R, Dunn G, Slater M, Freeman D (2016) Self-confidence and paranoia: an experimental study using an immersive virtual reality social situation. Behav Cogn Psychother 44(1):56–64CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Freeman D, Evans N, Lister R, Antley A, Dunn G, Slater M (2014) Height, social comparison, and paranoia: an immersive virtual reality experimental study. Psychiatry Res 218(3):348–352CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Brinkman WP, Veling W, Dorrestijn E, Sandino G, Vakili V, van der Gaag M (2011) Virtual reality to study responses to social environmental stressors in individuals with and without psychosis. Stud Health Technol Inf 167:86–91Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Freeman D, Gittins M, Pugh K, Antley A, Slater M, Dunn G (2008) What makes one person paranoid and another person anxious? The differential prediction of social anxiety and persecutory ideation in an experimental situation. Psychol Med 38(8):1121–1132CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Goncalves R, Pedrozo AL, Coutinho ESF, Figueira I, Ventura P (2012) Efficacy of virtual reality exposure therapy in the treatment of PTSD: a systematic review. PLoS One 7(12):e48469. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048469 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Falconer CJ, Slater M, Rovira A, King JA, Gilbert P, Antley A, Brewin CR (2014) Embodying compassion: a virtual reality paradigm for overcoming excessive self-criticism. PLoS One 9(11):e111933. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0111933 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Falconer CJ, Rovira A, King JA, Gilbert P, Antley A, Fearon P, Ralph N, Slater M, Brewin CR (2016) Embodying self-compassion within virtual reality and its effects on patients with depression. Br J Psychiatry Open 2(1):74–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Bebbington PE, Bhugra D, Brugha T, Singleton N, Farrell M, Jenkins R, Lewis G, Meltzer H (2004) Psychosis, victimisation and childhood disadvantage: evidence from the second British National Survey of Psychiatric Morbidity. Br J Psychiatry 185:220–226. doi: 10.1192/bjp.185.3.220 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Shakoor S, McGuire P, Cardno AG, Freeman D, Plomin R, Ronald A (2015) A shared genetic propensity underlies experiences of bullying victimization in late childhood and self-rated paranoid thinking in adolescence. Schizophr Bull 41(3):754–763. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbu142 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Goldman-Mellor S, Caspi A, Arseneault L, Ajala N, Ambler A, Danese A, Fisher H, Hucker A, Odgers C, Williams T, Wong C, Moffitt TE (2016) Committed to work but vulnerable: self-perceptions and mental health in NEET 18-year olds from a contemporary British cohort. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 57(2):196–203. doi: 10.1111/jcpp.12459 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Brett CMC, Peters ER, McGuire PK (2015) Which psychotic experiences are associated with a need for clinical care? Eur Psychiatry 30(5):648–654. doi: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2014.12.005 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Underwood R, Kumari V, Peters E (2016) Appraisals of psychotic experiences: an experimental investigation of symptomatic, remitted and non-need-for-care individuals. Psychol Med 46(6):1249–1263. doi: 10.1017/S0033291715002780 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Hardy A, Fowler D, Freeman D, Smith B, Steel C, Evans J, Garety P, Kuipers E, Bebbington P, Dunn G (2005) Trauma and hallucinatory experience in psychosis. J Nerv Ment Dis 193(8):501–507CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Varese F, Smeets F, Drukker M, Lieverse R, Lataster T, Viechtbauer W, Read J, van Os J, Bentall RP (2012) Childhood adversities increase the risk of psychosis: a meta-analysis of patient-control, prospective- and cross-sectional cohort studies. Schizophr Bull 38(4):661–671. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbs050 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Eichenberg C, Wolters C (2012) Virtual realities in the treatment of mental disorders: a review of the current state of research. In: Eichenberg C (ed) Virtual reality in psychological, medical and pedagogical applications. InTech. doi: 10.5772/50094. Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/virtual-reality-in-psychological-medical-and-pedagogical-applications/virtual-realities-in-the-treatment-of-mental-disorders-a-review-of-the-current-state-of-research
  82. 82.
    Valmaggia LR, Latif L, Kempton MJ, Rus-Calafell M (2016) Virtual reality in the psychological treatment for mental health problems: a systematic review of recent evidence. Psychiatry Res 236:189–195CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Veling W, Moritz S, van der Gaag M (2014) Brave new worlds-review and update on virtual reality assessment and treatment in psychosis. Schizophr Bull 40(6):1194–1197. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbu125 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Macedo M, Marques A, Queiros C (2015) Virtual reality in assessment and treatment of schizophrenia: a systematic review. Jornal Brasileiro de Psiquiatria 64(1):70–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Jiandani N, Nair SR, Shukla H (2014) Efficacy of virtual reality exposure therapy in the management of symptoms associated with post traumatic stress disorder. Value in Health 17(7):A572CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Wiederhold BK, Wiederhold MD (2014) Virtual reality for posttraumatic stress disorder. In: Wiederhold BK, Bouchard S (eds) Advances in virtual reality and anxiety disorders. Springer, USA. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4899-8023-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Rizzo A, Parsons TD, Lange B, Kenny P, Buckwalter JG, Rothbaum B, Difede J, Frazier J, Newman B, Williams J, Reger G (2011) Virtual reality goes to war: a brief review of the future of military behavioral healthcare. J Clin Psychol Med Settings 18(2):176–187CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Fich LB, Jonsson P, Kirkegaard PH, Wallergard M, Garde AH, Hansen T (2014) Can architectural design alter the physiological reaction to psychosocial stress? A virtual TSST experiment. Physiol Behav 135:91–97CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Johns LC, Kompus K, Connell M, Humpston C, Lincoln TM, Longden E, Preti A, Alderson-Day B, Badcock JC, Cella M, Fernyhough C, McCarthy-Jones S, Peters E, Raballo A, Scott J, Siddi S, Sommer IE, Laroi F (2014) Auditory verbal hallucinations in persons with and without a need for care. Schizophr Bull 40(SUPPL. 4):S255–S264. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbu005 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Stinson K, Valmaggia LR, Antley A, Slater M, Freeman D (2010) Cognitive triggers of auditory hallucinations: an experimental investigation. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 41(3):179–184. doi: 10.1016/j.jbtep.2009.12.003 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Brett C, Heriot-Maitland C, McGuire P, Peters E (2014) Predictors of distress associated with psychotic-like anomalous experiences in clinical and non-clinical populations. Br J Clin Psychol 53(2):213–227. doi: 10.1111/bjc.12036 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Ward TA, Gaynor KJ, Hunter MD, Woodruff PWR, Garety PA, Peters ER (2014) Appraisals and responses to experimental symptom analogues in clinical and nonclinical individuals with psychotic experiences. Schizophr Bull 40(4):845–855. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbt094 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Freeman D, Garety P (2014) Advances in understanding and treating persecutory delusions: a review. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 49(8):1179–1189. doi: 10.1007/s00127-014-0928-7 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Howes OD, Murray RM (2014) Schizophrenia: an integrated sociodevelopmental-cognitive model. Lancet 383(9929):1677–1687. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62036-X CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Myin-Germeys I, Delespaul P, van Os J (2005) Behavioural sensitization to daily life stress in psychosis. Psychol Med 35(5):733–741CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Reininghaus U, Kempton MJ, Valmaggia L, Craig TK, Garety P, Onyejiaka A, Gayer-Anderson C, So SH, Hubbard K, Beards S, Dazzan P, Pariante C, Mondelli V, Fisher HL, Mills JG, Viechtbauer W, McGuire P, van Os J, Murray RM, Wykes T, Myin-Germeys I, Morgan C (2016) Stress sensitivity, aberrant salience, and threat anticipation in early psychosis: an experience sampling study. Schizophr Bull 42(3):712–722. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbv190 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lucia R. Valmaggia
    • 1
    • 2
  • Fern Day
    • 1
    • 3
  • Mar Rus-Calafell
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Psychology (PO 77), Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and NeuroscienceKing’s College LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.South London and Maudsley NHS TrustLondonUK
  3. 3.City University LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations