Early traumatic experiences, perceived discrimination and conversion to psychosis in those at clinical high risk for psychosis

  • Jacqueline Stowkowy
  • Lu Liu
  • Kristin S. Cadenhead
  • Tyrone D. Cannon
  • Barbara A. Cornblatt
  • Thomas H. McGlashan
  • Diana O. Perkins
  • Larry J. Seidman
  • Ming T. Tsuang
  • Elaine F. Walker
  • Scott W. Woods
  • Carrie E. Bearden
  • Daniel H. Mathalon
  • Jean Addington
Original Paper

Abstract

Purpose

There is evidence to suggest that both early traumatic experiences and perceived discrimination are associated with later onset of psychosis. Less is known about the impact these two factors may have on conversion to psychosis in those who are at clinical high risk (CHR) of developing psychosis. The purpose of this study was to determine if trauma and perceived discrimination were predictors of conversion to psychosis.

Methods

The sample consisted of 764 individuals who were at CHR of developing psychosis and 280 healthy controls. All participants were assessed on past trauma, bullying and perceived discrimination.

Results

Individuals at CHR reported significantly more trauma, bullying and perceived discrimination than healthy controls. Only perceived discrimination was a predictor of later conversion to psychosis.

Conclusions

Given that CHR individuals are reporting increased rates of trauma and perceived discrimination, these should be routinely assessed, with the possibility of offering interventions aimed at ameliorating the impact of past traumas as well as improving self-esteem and coping strategies in an attempt to reduce perceived discrimination.

Keywords

Clinical high risk Psychosis Trauma Perceived discrimination Prodrome Risk 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jacqueline Stowkowy
    • 1
  • Lu Liu
    • 1
  • Kristin S. Cadenhead
    • 2
  • Tyrone D. Cannon
    • 4
  • Barbara A. Cornblatt
    • 3
  • Thomas H. McGlashan
    • 4
  • Diana O. Perkins
    • 5
  • Larry J. Seidman
    • 6
  • Ming T. Tsuang
    • 2
  • Elaine F. Walker
    • 7
  • Scott W. Woods
    • 4
  • Carrie E. Bearden
    • 8
  • Daniel H. Mathalon
    • 9
  • Jean Addington
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry, Mathison Centre for Mental Health Research and EducationUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryUCSDLa JollaUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychiatryZucker Hillside HospitalLong IslandUSA
  4. 4.Department of PsychiatryYale UniversityNew HavenUSA
  5. 5.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA
  6. 6.Department of PsychiatryHarvard Medical School at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Massachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA
  7. 7.Departments of Psychology and PsychiatryEmory UniversityAtlantaUSA
  8. 8.Departments of Psychology and Psychiatry and Biobehavioral SciencesUCLALos AngelesUSA
  9. 9.Department of PsychiatryUCSFSan FranciscoUSA

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