Racial discrimination, socioeconomic position, and illicit drug use among US Blacks
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We assessed the relationship of self-reported racial discrimination with illicit drug use among US Blacks, and whether this differed by socioeconomic position (SEP).
Among 6587 Black participants in Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2004–2005), we used multiple logistic regression models to test the association between racial discrimination (measured on the 6-item Experiences of Discrimination scale) and past-year illicit drug use, and whether this differed by SEP.
Racial discrimination was associated with past-year drug use [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.32; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.70, 3.16] and with frequent drug use (aOR 1.91; 95 % CI 1.22, 2.99). For frequent illicit drug use, this relationship was stronger among higher SEP participants (aOR 3.55; 95 % CI 2.09, 6.02; p interaction < 0.01).
The stronger association between racial discrimination and frequent illicit drug use among higher SEP Blacks suggests a complex interplay between disadvantaged and privileged statuses that merits further investigation. The finding of a significant difference by SEP highlights the importance of considering differences within heterogeneous race/ethnic groups when investigating health disparities.
KeywordsRacial discrimination African-Americans Substance use Socioeconomic position Intersectionality
The National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions was funded by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) with supplemental support from the National Institute on Drug Abuse. This study was supported in part by NIDA Grant# T32DA031099 (HC, DSF; PI: DSH), NIAAA Grant# K01AA021511 (KMK), New York State Psychiatric Institute, and the Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health Department of Epidemiology (DSH).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Informed consent was obtained for participation and study procedures were approved by the US Office of Management and Budget. Human subjects research approval for the NESARC study was granted by the US Census Bureau and the US Office of Management and Budget.
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