Association between living arrangements and depressive symptoms among older women and men in South Korea
- 524 Downloads
We investigated the relationship between different types of living arrangements and depressive symptoms among older Korean women and men.
Data were obtained from a nationally representative cross-sectional health survey conducted in 2009 in South Korea. A total of 60,305 participants (34,172 women and 26,133 men) aged 60 years and older were included in the analysis. The living arrangements were categorised into six types as follows: (1) living with a spouse only; (2) living with a spouse in an extended family; (3) living with a spouse in a nuclear family; (4) living alone; (5) living without a spouse in an extended family; and (6) living without a spouse in a nuclear family. The Korean version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale was used as the measurement tool for depressive symptoms. We used multiple regression analysis to estimate the effects of living arrangement on depressive symptoms.
A total of 16.8 % of the total study population showed depressive symptoms. Living with a spouse only was the most common type of living arrangement (46.3 %). Women and men living with a spouse only were the least likely to have depressive symptoms. However, living without a spouse in a nuclear family and living alone were most strongly associated with depressive symptoms in women (OR 1.81; 95 % CI 1.64–2.00) and men (OR 2.71; 95 % CI 2.43–3.03), respectively.
The prevalence of depressive symptoms are associated with the living arrangements of elderly Koreans. There are gender differences in these associations, that may stem from the different demands of social roles and relationships in the family.
KeywordsLiving arrangement Depressive symptoms Old age Gender differences
The authors appreciate all of the citizens that participated in the 2009 CHS and all members of the 2009 CHS team.
Conflict of interest
The authors have no conflicts of interest to report in relation to the research presented in this manuscript.
- 1.Park JH, Lee JJ, Lee SB, Huh Y, Choi EA, Youn JC, Jhoo JH, Kim JS, Woo JI, Kim KW (2010) Prevalence of major depressive disorder and minor depressive disorder in an elderly Korean population: results from the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging (KLoSHA). J Affect Disord 125(1–3):234–240. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2010.02.109 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 5.KOSTAT (2012) 2012 statistics on the aged. Statistics Korea. http://kostat.go.kr/portal/english/news/1/23/2/index.board
- 7.Park JH, Lee JJ, Lee SB, Huh Y, Choi EA, Youn JC, Jhoo JH, Kim JS, Woo JI, Kim KW (2010) Prevalence of major depressive disorder and minor depressive disorder in an elderly Korean population: results from the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging (KLoSHA). J Affect Disord 125(1–3):234–240. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2010.02.109 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 12.KOSTAT (2011) Results of the 2010 population and housing census statistics Korea. http://kostat.go.kr/portal/english/news/1/17/1/index.board
- 13.Park JH, Kim KW, Kim MH, Kim MD, Kim BJ, Kim SK, Kim JL, Moon SW, Bae JN, Woo JI, Ryu SH, Yoon JC, Lee NJ, Lee DY, Lee DW, Lee SB, Lee JJ, Lee JY, Lee CU, Chang SM, Jhoo JH, Cho MJ (2012) A nationwide survey on the prevalence and risk factors of late life depression in South Korea. J Affect Disord 138(1–2):34–40. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2011.12.038 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 33.Chung K (2012) Analysis of the survey of living conditions and welfare needs of Korean older persons. Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs (KIHASA), SeoulGoogle Scholar
- 35.KOSTAT (2012) Marriage and divorce statistics in 2011. Statistics Korea. http://kostat.go.kr/portal/english/news/1/25/3/index.board
- 39.Lee MA, Weber MJ (2000) The effects of elderly Korean’s individual characteristics of living arrangements. Hous Soc 27(2):46–60Google Scholar