Prevalence rates for depression by industry: a claims database analysis
- 1.3k Downloads
To estimate and interpret differences in depression prevalence rates among industries, using a large, group medical claims database.
Depression cases were identified by ICD-9 diagnosis code in a population of 214,413 individuals employed during 2002–2005 by employers based in western Pennsylvania. Data were provided by Highmark, Inc. (Pittsburgh and Camp Hill, PA). Rates were adjusted for age, gender, and employee share of health care costs. National industry measures of psychological distress, work stress, and physical activity at work were also compiled from other data sources.
Rates for clinical depression in 55 industries ranged from 6.9 to 16.2 %, (population rate = 10.45 %). Industries with the highest rates tended to be those which, on the national level, require frequent or difficult interactions with the public or clients, and have high levels of stress and low levels of physical activity.
Additional research is needed to help identify industries with relatively high rates of depression in other regions and on the national level, and to determine whether these differences are due in part to specific work stress exposures and physical inactivity at work.
Claims database analyses may provide a cost-effective way to identify priorities for depression treatment and prevention in the workplace.
KeywordsDepression Occupation Industry Group medical insurance claims Work stress Prevalence rates
We wish to gratefully acknowledge the collaboration and support of Highmark Inc., headquartered in Pittsburgh and Camp Hill, Pennsylvania, whose data is analyzed in this paper. We thank Brian Day, Andrea DeVries, and Cara Hirsch at Highmark for their assistance in establishing and guiding the project, and Jerry O’Donnell, also at Highmark, for his assistance with the data.
Funding was provided by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare they have no conflicts of interest.
- 1.Alterman T, Grosch J, Chen X, Chrislip D, Petersen M, Krieg E Jr, Muntaner C (2008) Examining associations between job characteristics and health: linking data from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) to two US national health surveys. J Occup Environ Med 50(12):1401–1413. doi: 10.1097/JOM.0b013e318188e882 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 4.Benjamini Y, Hochberg Y (1995) Controlling the false discovery rate: a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. J R Stat Soc B 57:287–300Google Scholar
- 7.Bureau of Labor Statistics (2012) US Dept. of Labor. Injuries, illnesses and fatalities program retrieved Dec. 31, 2012, from http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/stress/qwlquest.html. Accessed 31 Dec 2012
- 9.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (2012) US Dept. of Health and Human Services. Quality of WorkLife QuestionanaireGoogle Scholar
- 10.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Department of Health and Human Services (2003) HIPAA privacy rule and public health. MMWR CDC Surveill Summ 52:1–12Google Scholar
- 11.Chandola T, Martikainen P, Bartley M, Lahelma E, Marmot M, Michikazu S, Kagamimori S (2004) Does conflict between home and work explain the effect of multiple roles on mental health? A comparative study of Finland, Japan, and the UK. Int J Epidemiol 33(4):884–893. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyh155dyh155 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 14.Couser GP (2008) Challenges and opportunities for preventing depression in the workplace: a review of the evidence supporting workplace factors and interventions. J Occup Environ Med 50(4):411–427. doi: 10.1097/JOM.0b013e318168efe200043764-200804000-00006 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 27.Karasek R, Theorell T (1990) Healthy work: stress productivity and the reconstruction of working life. Basic books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 31.Lipscomb HJ, Dement JM, Epling CA, Gaynes BN, McDonald MA, Schoenfisch AL (2007) Depressive symptoms among working women in rural North Carolina: a comparison of women in poultry processing and other low-wage jobs. Int J Law Psychiatry 30(4–5):284–298. doi: 10.1016/j.ijlp.2007.06.003 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 34.Murray C, Lopez A (1996) The global burden of disease: summary, vol Summary. Harvard School of Public Health, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
- 35.National Opinion Research Center at the University of Chicago. (2012). General Social Survey retrieved Dec. 31, 2012, from http://www3.norc.org/GSS+Website/. Accessed 31 Dec 2012
- 37.SAMHSA (2007) Depression among adults employed full-time, by occupational category. The NSDUH ReportGoogle Scholar
- 41.Tse J, Flin R, Mearns K (2006) Bus driver well-being: 50 years of research. Transport Res 9(Part F) 89–114Google Scholar
- 42.US Dept of Health and Human Services (2010) Health information privacy retrieved Aug. 8, 2010, from http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/privacy/. Accessed 8 Aug 2010
- 51.Waters TR, Dick RB, Krieg EF (2011) Trends in work-related musculoskeletal disorders: a comparison of risk factors for symptoms using quality of work life data from the 2002 and 2006 general social survey. J Occup Environ Med 53(9):1013–1024. doi: 10.1097/JOM.0b013e3181fc8493 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar