Perceived empowerment in people with a dual diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum disorder and substance misuse

  • Katherine Berry
  • Rory Allott
  • Richard Emsley
  • Sarah Ennion
  • Christine Barrowclough
Original Paper



The aims of the present study were to validate a measure of empowerment in a British population of people with a dual diagnosis of schizophrenia and substance misuse and assess relationships between empowerment and other key outcomes.


Patients participating in a large randomised control trial for Motivational Interviewing for Drug and Alcohol misuse in Schizophrenia or psychosis (MIDAS trial) completed measures of empowerment, symptoms, global functioning and substance use at baseline, 12- and 24-month follow-ups.


A three factor model of empowerment: self-efficacy and control; power and anger; and activism provided the best fit of the data across all three time points. There was some evidence of associations between empowerment and both symptoms and global functioning, although these associations were not consistent across subscales. Changes in empowerment predicted changes in symptoms and functioning at follow-up.


Empowerment is a broadly defined construct and its meaning may differ across different populations of people with severe and enduring mental health problems. Empowerment is a key component of recovery and should be assessed in treatments in addition to more traditional outcome measures of symptoms and functioning.


Empowerment Schizophrenia Substance misuse 



We thank all participants who took part in the studies from the NHS Trusts and all the NHS staff who helped with recruitment. This research was supported by the Medical Research Council (MIDAS trial grant number—G0200471).

Conflict of interest



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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katherine Berry
    • 1
  • Rory Allott
    • 1
  • Richard Emsley
    • 1
  • Sarah Ennion
    • 1
  • Christine Barrowclough
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Psychological SciencesUniversity of ManchesterManchesterUK

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