Social networks and support in first-episode psychosis: exploring the role of loneliness and anxiety
- 1.3k Downloads
To investigate social support and network features in people with first-episode psychosis, and to examine anxiety as a possible mediator between loneliness and a rating of paranoia.
Thirty-eight people with first-episode psychosis were recruited for a cross-sectional study. Self-report questionnaires and structured interviews assessed symptoms, functioning, and qualitative social network and support features. A mood-induction task involved watching anxiety-inducing pictures on a computer screen. Visual analogue scales assessed changes in paranoia, anxiety and loneliness and a mediation analysis was conducted.
One-third of the sample (34 %) had no confidant [95 % CI (18.4, 50.0 %)]. The average number of weekly contacts was 3.9, with 2.6 lonely days. Poor perceived social support, loneliness and the absence of a confidant were strongly associated with psychosis and depressive symptoms (0.35 < rs < 0.60). The association between loneliness and paranoia was mediated through anxiety (ab = 0.43, z = 3.5; p < 0.001).
Even at first episode, a large proportion of people with psychosis have poor perceived support, no confidant and report several lonely days a week. Patients without a confidant appear to be more susceptible to feeling lonely and anxious. Anxiety may be one pathway through which loneliness affects psychosis. Interventions which focus on this are indicated.
KeywordsSocial networks Loneliness Anxiety Confidant First-episode psychosis
This work was supported by the Wellcome Trust (Grant number: WT087417) and the Department of Health via the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Specialist Biomedical Research Centre for Mental Health award to South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust (SLaM) and the Institute of Psychiatry at King’s College London. Craig Morgan is supported by funding from the Medical Research Council (Ref: G0500817), Wellcome Trust (Grant number: WT087417) and European Union (European Community’s Seventh Framework Program (grant agreement No. HEALTH-F2-2009-241909) (Project EU-GEI)).
Conflict of interest
- 2.Gayer-Anderson C, Morgan C (2012) Social networks, support and early psychosis: a systematic review. Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci 1(1):1–16Google Scholar
- 8.Tempier R, Balbuena L, Lepnurm M, Craig TKJ (2013) Perceived emotional support in remission: results from an 18-month follow-up of patients with early episode psychosis. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. doi: 10.1007/00127-013-0701-3
- 9.Peplau LA, Perlman D (1982) Loneliness: a sourcebook of current theory, research, and therapy. John Wiley Sons Inc, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 16.Fromm-Reichmann F (1959) Loneliness. Psychiatry 22:1–15Google Scholar
- 28.Andreasen NC (1984) Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS). City of Iowa, Iowa CityGoogle Scholar
- 29.Andreasen NC (1984) Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS). City of Iowa, Iowa CityGoogle Scholar
- 35.Lang PJ, Bradley MM, Cuthbert BN (1997) International affective picture system (IAPS): technical manual and affective ratings. NIMH Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention, GainesvilleGoogle Scholar
- 36.Preacher KJ, Hayes AF (2004) SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models. Beh Res M 36(4):717–731Google Scholar
- 38.Preacher KJ, Leonardelli GJ (2001) Calculation for the Sobel test: an interactive calculation tool for mediation tests. Psychol Methods 7(1):83–104Google Scholar
- 39.Bengtsson-Tops A, Hansson L (2001) Quantitative and qualitative aspects of the social network in schizophrenic patients living in the community. Relationship to sociodemographic characteristics and clinical factors and subjective quality of life. Int J Soc Psychiatry 47(3):67–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 42.Horan WP, Subotnik KL, Snyder KS, Nuechterlein KH (2006) Do recent-onset schizophrenia patients experience a “social network crisis”? Psychiatr 69(2):115–129Google Scholar
- 43.Cohen J (1988) Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Lawrence Erlbaum, HillsdaleGoogle Scholar
- 49.Sündermann O, Onwumere J, Bebbington P, Kuipers E (2012) Social networks and support in early psychosis: potential mechanisms. Epidemiol Psychiat Sci 1(1):1–4Google Scholar