Pre-typhoon socioeconomic status factors predict post-typhoon psychiatric symptoms in a Vietnamese sample
Exposure to natural disasters has been associated with increased risk for various forms of psychopathology. Evidence indicates that socioeconomic status (SES) may be important for understanding post-disaster psychiatric distress; however, studies of SES-relevant factors in non-Western, disaster-exposed samples are lacking. The primary aim of the current study was to examine the role of pre-typhoon SES-relevant factors in relation to post-typhoon psychiatric symptoms among Vietnamese individuals exposed to Typhoon Xangsane.
In 2006, Typhoon Xangsane disrupted a mental health needs assessment in Vietnam in which the Self Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20), and the Demographic and Health Surveys Wealth Index, a measure of SES created for use in low-income countries, were administered pre-typhoon. The SRQ-20 was re-administered post-typhoon.
Results of a linear mixed model indicated that the covariates of older age, female sex, and higher levels of pre-typhoon psychiatric symptoms were associated with higher levels of post-typhoon psychiatric symptoms. Analysis of SES indicators revealed that owning fewer consumer goods, having lower quality of household services, and having attained less education were associated with higher levels of post-typhoon symptoms, above and beyond the covariates, whereas quality of the household build, employment status, and insurance status were not related to post-typhoon psychiatric symptoms.
Even after controlling for demographic characteristics and pre-typhoon psychiatric symptoms, certain SES factors uniquely predicted post-typhoon psychiatric distress. These SES characteristics may be useful for identifying individuals in developing countries who are in need of early intervention following disaster exposure.
KeywordsVietnam Epidemiology Socioeconomic status Natural disaster Mental health
- 5.IFRC (2004) International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies World disaster report 2004. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 8.Andrade L, Caraveo-Anduaga J, Berglund P, Bijl R, Kessler R, Demler O et al (2000) Cross-national comparisons of the prevalences and correlates of mental disorders. Bull World Health Organ 78(4):413–426Google Scholar
- 20.Xiong GL, Iosif AM, Bermudes RA, McCarron RM, Hales RE (2010) Preventive medical services use among community mental health patients with severe mental illness: the influence of gender and insurance coverage. Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry 12(5). doi:10.4088/PCC.09m00927gre
- 26.Jones EC, Gupta SN, Murphy AD, Norris FH (2011) Inequality, socioeconomic status, and social support in post-disaster mental health in Mexico. Hum Organ 70(1):33–43Google Scholar
- 30.Amstadter AB, Acierno R, Richardson LK, Kilpatrick DG, Gros DF, Gaboury MT et al (2009) Posttyphoon prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder, major depressive disorder, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder in a Vietnamese sample. J Trauma Stress 22(3):180–188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 32.Gwatkin DR, Rutstein S, Johnson K, Suliman E, Wagstaff A, Amouzou A (2007) Socio-economic differences in health, nutrition, and population within developing countries. An overview. World Bank, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
- 33.Rutstein S, Johnson K (2004) The DHS wealth index. DHS comparative reports no. 6. ORC Macro, CalvertonGoogle Scholar
- 36.Organization WH (1994) A users guide to the self reporting questionnaire (SRQ). World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
- 37.Tuan T, Harpham T, Huong N (2004) Validity and reliability of the self-reporting questionnaire 20 items (SRQ20) in Vietnam, Hong Kong. J Psychiatry 14:15–18Google Scholar
- 39.Tuan T, Harpham T, Huong N (2004) Validity and reliability of the self-reporting questionnaire 20 items (SRQ20) in Vietnam. Hong Kong J Psychiatry 14:15–18Google Scholar
- 42.von dem Knesebeck O, Mnich E, Daubmann A, Wegscheider K, Angermeyer MC, Lambert M, et al (2012) Socioeconomic status and beliefs about depression, schizophrenia and eating disorders. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. doi:10.1007/s00127-012-0599-1
- 48.Amstadter AB, Aggen SH, Knudsen GP, Reichborn-Kjennerud T, Kendler KS (2013) Potentially traumatic event exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder, and axis I and II comorbidity in a population-based study of Norwegian young adults. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 48(2):215–223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar