Advertisement

Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology

, Volume 48, Issue 12, pp 1931–1939 | Cite as

Multidimensional health locus of control and depressive symptoms in the multi-ethnic population of the Netherlands

  • Tobias K. van Dijk
  • Henriëtte Dijkshoorn
  • Ad van Dijk
  • Stephan Cremer
  • Charles Agyemang
Original Paper

Abstract

Purpose

Ethnic inequalities in health in Western societies are well-documented but poorly understood. We examined associations between health locus of control (HLC) and depressive symptoms among native and non-native Dutch people in the Netherlands.

Methods

We used hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses on a representative sample of the multi-ethnic population of Amsterdam and The Hague (n = 10,302). HLC was measured with the multidimensional health locus of control scale. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Kessler Psychological Distress scale.

Results

Multivariate analyses showed that HLC contributes to ethnic differences in the prevalence of depressive symptoms. Respondents who scored high on external locus of control (PHLC) were more likely to have depressive symptoms than those with a low score on PHLC (β = 0.133, p < 0.001). Conversely, respondents scoring high on internal locus of control (IHLC) were less likely to have depressive symptoms compared to those scoring low on IHLC (β = −0.134, p < 0.001). The associations were most pronounced among Turkish-Dutch and Moroccan-Dutch respondents.

Conclusion

Our findings suggest that HLC contributes to ethnic inequalities in depressive symptoms, especially among Turkish and Moroccan ethnic groups. Professionals (e.g. clinicians and policy makers) need to take HLC into account when assessing and treating depression among ethnic minority groups, particularly in Turkish and Moroccan populations. Future research should look further into the associations within these groups.

Keywords

Depression Locus of control Ethnic minorities Cultural comparison 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Academic Collaboration of the Municipal Health Service Amsterdam and the Academic Medical Center Amsterdam for funding this study. S. Cremer and H. Dijkshoorn conceived the idea. T.K. van Dijk was responsible for data analysis and writing the article. All co-authors contributed to the conceptualization, writing, and review of drafts of the article.

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical standard

This study has been approved by the Medical Ethical Commission of the Academic Medical Center Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

References

  1. 1.
    Andrade L, Caraveo-Anduaga JJ, Berglund P et al (2003) The epidemiology of major depressive episodes: results from the International Consortium of Psychiatric Epidemiology (ICPE) Surveys. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res 12:3–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Blazer DG, Kessler RC, McGonagle KA, Swartz MS (1994) The prevalence and distribution of major depression in a National community sample: the National Comorbidity Survey. Am J Psychiatry 151:979–986PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kessler RC, Berglund P, Demler O, Jin R, Merikangas KR, Walters EE (2005) Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry 62:593–602PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kessler RC, McGonagle KA, Swartz M, Blazer DG, Nelson CB (1993) Sex and depression in the National Comorbidity Survey I: Lifetime prevalence, chronicity and recurrence. J Affect Disord 29:85–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kruijshaar ME, Barendregt J, Vos T, De Graaf R, Spijker J, Andrews G (2005) Lifetime prevalence estimates of major depression: An indirect estimation method and a quantification of recall bias. Eur J Epidemiol 20:103–111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Patten SB (2003) Recall bias and major depression lifetime prevalence. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 38:290–296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bijl RV, Ravelli A, Van Zessen G (1998) Prevalence of psychiatric disorder in the general population: Results of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS). Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 33:587–595PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    De Graaf R, Ten Have M, Van Dorsselaer S (2010) De Psychische Gezondheid van de Nederlandse Bevolking: NEMESIS-II Opzet en Eerste Resultaten [The Mental Health of the Dutch Population: NEMESIS-II Design and First Results]. Trimbos Institute, Utrecht, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    De Wit MAS, Tuinebreijer WC, Dekker J et al (2008) Depressive and anxiety disorders in different ethnic groups: a population based study among native Dutch, and Turkish, Moroccan, and Surinamese migrants in Amsterdam. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 43:905–912PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Levecque K, Lodewyckx I, Bracke P (2009) Psychological distress, depression, and generalised anxiety in Turkish and Moroccan immigrants in Belgium. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 44:188–197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Van der Wurff FB, Beekman ATF, Dijkshoorn H (2004) Prevalence and risk-factors for depression in elderly Turkish and Moroccan migrants in the Netherlands. J Affect Disord 83:33–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Missinne S, Bracke P (2012) Depressive symptoms among immigrants and ethnic minorities: a population based study in 23 European countries. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 47:97–109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Karlsen S, Nazroo JY (2002) Relation between racial discrimination, social class, and health among ethnic minority groups. Am J Public Health 92:624–631PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Belsher G, Costello CG (1988) Relapse after recovery from unipolar depression: a critical review. Psychol Bull 104:84–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Geddes JR, Carney SM, Davies C et al (2003) Relapse prevention with antidepressant drug treatment in depressive disorders: a systematic review. Lancet 361:653–661PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Keller MB, Shapiro RW, Lavorin PW, Wolfe N (1982) Relapse in major depressive disorder: analysis with the life table and regression models. Arch Gen Psychiatry 39:911–915PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Paykel ES, Ramana R, Cooper Z, Hayhurst H, Kerr J, Barocka A (1995) Residual symptoms after partial remission: an important outcome in depression. Psychol Med 25:1171–1180PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Beck AT, Alford BA (2009) Depression: causes and treatment, 2nd edn. University of Pennsylvania Press, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Abramson LY, Seligman ME, Teasdale JD (1978) Learned helplessness in humans: critique and reformulation. J Abnorm Psychol 87:49–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Miller IW, Norman WH (1979) Learned helplessness in humans: a review and attribution-theory model. Psychol Bull 86:93–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Burger JM (1984) Desire for control, locus of control, and proneness to depression. J Pers 52:71–89PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rotter JB (1954) Social learning and clinical psychology. Prentice-Hall, Englewood CliffsCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wallston KA, Wallston BS, DeVellis RF (1978) Development of the multidimensional health locus of control (MHLC) scale. Health Educ Monogr 6:160–170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lefcourt H (1981) The construction and development of the multidimensional- multiattributional causality scales. In: Lefcourt H (ed) Research with the locus of control construct. Academic Press, London, pp 245–261Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lefcourt H (1982) Locus of control: current trends in theory and research, 2nd edn. Erlbaum, HillsdaleGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Phares EJ (1976) Locus of control in personality. General Learning Press, MorristownGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Steptoe A, Wardle J (2001) Locus of control and health behaviour revisited: A multivariate analysis of young adults from 18 countries. Br J Psychol 92:659–672PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Pantelidou S, Craig TKJ (2006) Culture shock and social support. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 41:777–781PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mangalore R, Knapp M (2012) Income-related inequalities in common mental health disorders among ethnic minorities in England. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 47:351–359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Van Dijk TK, Agyemang C, De Wit MAS et al (2010) The relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms among Young Turkish-Dutch and Moroccan-Dutch. Eur J Public Health 21(4):77–83Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Shen B-J, Takeuchi DT (2001) A structural model of acculturation and mental health status among Chinese Americans. Am J Community Psychol 29:387–418PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kessler RC, Andrews G, Colpe LJ et al (2002) Short screening scales to monitor population prevalences and trends in non-specific psychological distress. Psychol Med 32:959–976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Fassaert T, De Wit MAS, Tuinebreijer WC et al (2009) Psychometric properties of an interviewer-administered version of the Kessler Psychological Distress scale (K10) among Dutch, Moroccan and Turkish respondents. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res 18:159–168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    CBS (Central Bureau for Statistics) (2000) Standdaarddefinitie van allochtonen [Standard definition of ethnic minorities]. Index 10:24–25Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wallston KA (2005) The validity of the multidimensional health locus of control scales. J Health Psych 10:623–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Afifi M (2007) Health locus of control and depressive symptoms among adolescents in Alexandria, Egypt. East Mediterr Health J 13:1043–1052PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Stronks K, Kulu-Glasgow I, Agyemang C (2009) The utility of ‘country of birth’ for the classification of ethnic groups in health research: the Dutch experience. Ethn Health 14:255–269PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wrighston KJ, Wardle J (1997) Cultural variation in health locus of control. Ethn Health 2:13–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Guinn B (1998) Acculturation and health locus of control among Mexican American adolescents. Hispanic J Behav Sci 4:492–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Spijker J, Van der Wurff FB, Poort EC et al (2004) Depression in first generation labour migrants in Western Europe: the utility of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 19:538–544PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Schrier AC, De Wit MAS, Rijmen F et al (2010) Similarity in depressive symptom profile in a population-based study if migrants in the Netherlands. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 45:941–951PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Baruch Y (1999) Response rates in academic studies—a comparative analysis. Hum Relat 52:421–434Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Cook C, Heath F, Thompson RL (2000) A meta-analysis of response rates in web- or internet-based surveys. Educ Psychol Meas 60:821–836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Krosnick J (1999) Survey research. Annu Rev Psychol 50:537–567PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Fassaert T, De Wit MAS, Tuinebreijer WC et al (2009) Perceived need for mental health care among non-western labour migrants. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 44:208–216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tobias K. van Dijk
    • 1
  • Henriëtte Dijkshoorn
    • 1
  • Ad van Dijk
    • 2
  • Stephan Cremer
    • 1
  • Charles Agyemang
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology, Documentation, and Health PromotionMunicipal Health Service Amsterdam (GGD)AmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Epidemiology, Social Care, and Health PromotionMunicipal Health Service (GGD)The HagueThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of Social Medicine, Amsterdam Medical CentreUniversity of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations