Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Childhood trauma, personality disorders symptoms and current major depressive disorder in Togo

  • 714 Accesses

  • 17 Citations

Abstract

Purpose

Childhood trauma (CT) has been found to be associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) and personality disorders (PD) in adulthood in Western countries, but little is known about the relationship between CT, PD and MDD in sub-Saharan Africa. The present study aims to examine: (1) the frequency of the CT, (2) the association between CT, PD symptoms and MDD and (3) the mediating role of PD between CT and MDD in Togo.

Methods

One hundred and eighty-one participants (91 individuals with current MDD and 90 healthy controls without psychiatric history) completed the 28-item CT Questionnaire (CTQ) and the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire (PDQ-4+).

Results

Participants in the MDD group reported more frequently emotional, sexual and physical abuse and emotional and physical neglect than controls (p < 0.001). There was a significant positive correlation between the total abuse and the PDQ-4 + score (r = 0.48, p < 0.01) in the total sample. Emotional and sexual abuses were associated with current MDD and the number of PD criteria endorsed. Furthermore, PD symptoms mediated partially the relationship between CT and current MDD.

Conclusions

Our results suggest an association between CT and current MDD in French-speaking sub-Saharan Africa, and that this relationship may be explained by PD symptoms. Prospective studies to confirm these results are warranted.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1

References

  1. 1.

    Grover KE, Carpenter LL, Price LH, Gagne GG, Mello AF, Mello MF, Tyrka AR (2007) The relationship between childhood abuse and adult personality disorder symptoms. J Pers Disord 21:442–447

  2. 2.

    Pirkola S, Isometsä E, Aro H, Kestilä L, Hämäläinen J, Veijola J, Kiviruusu O, Lönnqvist J (2005) Childhood adversities as risk factors for adult mental disorders: results from the Health 2000 study. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 40:769–777. doi:10.1007/s00127-005-0950-x

  3. 3.

    Schilling EA, Aseltine RH Jr, Gore S (2007) Adverse childhood experiences and mental health in young adults: a longitudinal survey. BMC Public Health 7:30. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-7-30

  4. 4.

    Slopen N, Williams DR, Seedat S, Moomal H, Herman A, Stein DJ (2010) Adversities in childhood and adult psychopathology in the South Africa Stress and Health Study: associations with first-onset DSM-IV disorders. SocSci Med 71:1847–1854. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.08.015

  5. 5.

    Anda RF, Whitfield CL, Felitti VJ, Chapman D, Edwards VJ, Dube SR, Williamson DF (2002) Adverse childhood experiences, alcoholic parents, and later risk of alcoholism and depression. Psychiatr Services 53:1001–1009

  6. 6.

    Chapman DP, Whitfield CL, Felitti VJ, Dube SR, Edwards VJ, Anda RF (2004) Adverse childhood experiences and the risk of depressive disorders in adulthood. J Affect Disord 82:217–225. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2003.12.013

  7. 7.

    Gibb BE, Chelminski I, Zimmerman M (2007) Childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, and diagnoses of depressive and anxiety disorders in adult psychiatric outpatients. Depress Anxiety 24:256–263. doi:10.1002/da.20238

  8. 8.

    Molnar BE, Buka SL, Kessler RC (2001) Child sexual abuse and subsequent psychopathology: results from the National Comorbidity Survey. Am J Public Health 91:753–760

  9. 9.

    Hovens JGFM, Wiersma JE, Giltay EJ, Van Oppen P, Spinhoven P, Phenninx WJH, Zitman FG (2010) Childhood life events and childhood trauma in adult patients with depressive, anxiety, and comorbid disorders vs. controls. Acta Psychiatr Scand 122:66–74. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.2009.01491.x

  10. 10.

    Widom CS, DuMont K, Czaja SJ (2007) A prospective investigation of major depression disorder and comorbidity in abused and neglected children grown up. Arch Gen Psychiatry 64:49–56

  11. 11.

    Battle CL, Shea MT, Johnson DM, Yen S, Zlotnick C, Zanarini MC, Sanislow CA, Skodol AE, Gunderson JG, Griolo CM, McGlashan TH, Morey LC (2004) Childhood maltreatment associated with adult personality disorders: findings from the collaborative longitudinal personality disorders study. J Pers Disord 18:193–211

  12. 12.

    Bierer LM, Yehuda R, Schmeidler J, Mitropoulou V, New AS, Silverman JM, Siever LJ (2003) Abuse and neglect in childhood: relationship to personality disorder diagnostic. CNS Spectr 8:737–754

  13. 13.

    Tyrka AR, Wyche MC, Kelly MM, Price LH, Carpenter LL (2009) Childhood maltreatment and adult personality disorder symptoms: influence of maltreatment type. Psychiatry Res 165:281–287. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2007.10.017

  14. 14.

    Iacoviello BM, Alloy LB, Abramson LY, Whitehouse WG, Hogan ME (2007) The role of cluster B and C personality disturbance in the course of depression: a prospective study. J Pers Disord 21:371–383

  15. 15.

    Ilardi S, Craighead W, Evans D (1997) Modeling relapse in unipolar depression: the effects of dysfunctional cognitions and personality disorders. J Consult Clin Psychol 65:381–391. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.65.3.381

  16. 16.

    Benjet C (2010) Childhood adversities of populations living in low-income countries: prevalence, characteristics, and mental health consequences. Curr Opin Psychiatry 23:356–362. doi:10.1097/YCO.0b01e32833ad79b

  17. 17.

    Lalor K (2004) Child sexual abuse in sub-Saharan Africa: a literature review. Child Abuse Negl 28:439–460. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2003.07.005

  18. 18.

    Dassa SK, Douti NK, Kpanaké L, Koti B, Küchenhoff B (2005) Typology of child maltreatment in Togo. Schweiz Arch Neurol Psychiatr 156:240–246

  19. 19.

    Kabiru CW, Beguy D, Crichton J, Ezeh AC (2010) Self-reported drunkenness among adolescents in four sub-Saharan African countries: associations with adverse childhood experiences. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health 4:17

  20. 20.

    Sato T, Uehara T, Narita T, Sakado K, Fujii Y (2000) Parental bonding and personality in relation to a lifetime history of depression. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 54:121–130

  21. 21.

    Moskvina V, Farmer A, Swainson V, O’Leary J, Gunasinghe C, Owen M, Craddock N, McGuffin N, Korszun A (2007) Interrelationship of childhood trauma, neuroticism, and depression phenotype. Depress Anxiety 24:163–168. doi:10.1002/da.20216

  22. 22.

    Bernstein DP, Fink L (1998) Manual of childhood trauma questionnaire. The Psychological Cooperation, New York

  23. 23.

    Bernstein DP, Stein JA, Newcomb MD, Walker E, Pogge D, Ahluvalia T, Stokes J, Handelsman L, Medrano M, Desmond D, Zule W (2003) Development and validation of a brief screening version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Child Abuse Negl 27:169–190

  24. 24.

    Hyler SE (1994) Personality diagnostic questionnaire (PDQ-4 plus). New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York

  25. 25.

    Fossati A, Maffei C, Bagnato M, Donati D, Donini M, Fiorilli M, Novella L, Ansoldi M (1998) Brief communication: criterion validity of the PersonalityDiagnostic Questionnaire-4 plus (PDQ-4+) in a mixedpsychiatric sample. J Pers Disord 12:172–178

  26. 26.

    Preacher KJ, Hayes AF (2008) Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behav Res Methods 40:879–891. doi:10.3758/BRM.40.3.879

  27. 27.

    Colman I, Garad Y, Zeng Y, Naicker K, Weeks M, Patten SB, Jones PB, Thompson AH, Wild TC (2012) Stress and development of depression and heavy drinking in adulthood: moderating effects of childhood trauma. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. doi:10.1007/s00127-012-0531-8

  28. 28.

    Stoltenborgh M, Bakermans-Kranenburg MJ, van IJzendoorn MH (2012) The neglect of child neglect: a meta-analytic review of the prevalence of neglect. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. doi:10.1007/s00127-012-0549-y

  29. 29.

    Bennett DS, Sullivan MW, Lewis M (2010) Neglected children, shame-proneness, and depressive symptoms. Child Maltreat 15:305–314. doi:10.1177/1077559510379634

  30. 30.

    Kessler RC, McLaughlin KA, Green JG et al (2010) Childhood adversities and adult psychopathology in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Br J Psychiatry 197:378–385. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.110.080499

  31. 31.

    Bernet CZ, Stein MB (1999) Relationship of childhood maltreatment to the onset and course of major depression in adulthood. Depress Anxiety 9:169–174

  32. 32.

    Tucci AM, Kerr-Corrêa F, Souza-Formigoni MLO (2010) Childhood trauma in substance use disorder and depression: an analysis by gender among Brazilian clinical sample. Child Abuse Negl 34:95–104. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2009.07.001

  33. 33.

    Oladeji BD, Makanjuola VA, Gureje O (2010) Family-related adverse childhood experiences as risk factors for psychiatric disorders in Nigeria. Br J Psychiatry 196:186–191. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.109.063677

  34. 34.

    Wingenfeld K, Schaffrath C, Rullkoetter N, Mensebach C, Schlosser N, Beblo T, Driessen M, Meyer B (2011) Associations of childhood trauma, trauma in adulthoodandprevious-year stress withpsychopathology in patientswith major depressionand borderline personality disorder. Child Abuse Negl 35:647–654. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2011.04.003

  35. 35.

    Kovess-Masfety V, Briffault X, Sapinho D (2009) Prevalence, risk factors, and use of health care in depression: a survey in a large region of France between 1991 and 2005. Can J Psychiatry 54:701–709

  36. 36.

    Verger P, Guagliardo V, Gilbert F, Rouillon F, Kovess-Masfety V (2010) Psychiatric disorders in students in six French universities: 12-month prevalence, comorbidity, impairment and help-seeking. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 45:189–199. doi:10.1007/s00127-009-0055-z

  37. 37.

    Kinyanda E, Woodburn P, Tugumisirize J, Kagugube J, Ndyanabangi S, Patel V (2011) Poverty, life events and the risk for depression in Uganda. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 46:35–44. doi:10.1007/s00127-009-0164-8

  38. 38.

    Abdul Kadir NB, Bifulco A (2011) Vulnerability, life events and depression among Moslem Malaysian women: comparing those married and those divorced or separated. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 46:853–862. doi:10.1007/s00127-010-0249-4

  39. 39.

    Carr S, Francis A (2009) Childhood maltreatment and adult personality disorders symptoms in a non-clinical sample. Australian Psychologist 44:146–155. doi:10.1080/00050060903136847

  40. 40.

    Briere J, Elliot DM (2003) Prevalence and psychological sequelae of self-reported childhood physical and sexual abuse in a general population sample of men and women. Child Abuse Negl 27:1205–1222. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2003.09.008

  41. 41.

    Alnæs R, Torgersen S (1997) Personality and personality disorders predict development and relapses of major depression. Acta Psychiatr Scand 95:336–342

  42. 42.

    Korkeila J, Vahtera J, Nabi H, Kimimäki M, Korkeila K, Sumanen M, Koskenvuo K, Koskenvuo M (2010) Childhood adversities, adulthood life events and depression. J Affect Disord 127:130–138. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2010.04.031

  43. 43.

    Korkeila K, Korkeila J, Vahtera J, Kivimäki M, Kivelä S-L, Sillanmäki L, Koskenvuo M (2005) Childhood adversities, adult risk factors and depressiveness: a population study. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 40:700–706. doi:10.1007/s00127-005-0969-x

  44. 44.

    Wingo AP, Wrenn G, Pelletier T, Gutman AR, Bradley B, Ressler KJ (2010) Moderating effects of resilience on depression in individuals with a history of childhood abuse or trauma exposure. J Affect Disord 126:411–414. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2010.04.009

Download references

Acknowledgments

K. B. Kounou has received a Ph.D. Grant from “Agence Universitaire de la Francophonie” within the Framework of this research. E. Bui was supported by a fellowship from the CHU de Toulouse. We thank Emefa Kwadzo for her translation assistance.

Author information

Correspondence to Eric Bui.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Kounou, K.B., Bui, E., Dassa, K.S. et al. Childhood trauma, personality disorders symptoms and current major depressive disorder in Togo. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 48, 1095–1103 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-012-0634-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • Childhood trauma
  • Personality disorders
  • Depression
  • Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Togo