Advertisement

Evaluation of a campaign to improve awareness and attitudes of young people towards mental health issues

  • James D. LivingstonEmail author
  • Andrew Tugwell
  • Kimberly Korf-Uzan
  • Michelle Cianfrone
  • Connie Coniglio
Original Paper

Abstract

Purpose

This study evaluated the effectiveness of the In One Voice campaign for raising mental health awareness and improving attitudes of youth and young adults towards mental health issues. The campaign featured a prominent male sports figure talking about mental health issues and used online social media.

Methods

A successive independent samples design assessed market penetration and attitudinal changes among the young people. Two samples completed an online questionnaire either immediately before (T1: n = 403) or 2 months after (T2: n = 403) the campaign launch. Website analytics determined changes in activity levels of a youth-focused mental health website (mindcheck.ca).

Results

One-quarter (24.8 %, n = 100) of the respondents remembered the campaign. The proportion of respondents who were aware of the website increased significantly from 6.0 % at T1 to 15.6 % at T2. Average overall scores on standardized measures of personal stigma and social distance were not significantly different between T1 and T2 respondents. Attitudes towards mental health issues were statistically similar between respondents who were or were not exposed to the campaign. Those who were exposed to the campaign were significantly more likely to talk about and seek information relating to mental health issues.

Conclusions

The proximal outcomes of the campaign to increase awareness and use of the website were achieved. The distal outcome of the campaign to improve attitudes towards mental health issues was not successfully achieved. The brief social media campaign improved mental health literacy outcomes, but had limited effect on personal stigma and social distance.

Keywords

Anti-stigma campaign Social media Mental health awareness Youth Personal stigma Social distance 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Financial support for this study was provided by BC Mental Health and Addiction Services.

References

  1. 1.
    Weiss MG, Ramakrishna J, Somma D (2006) Health-related stigma: rethinking concepts and interventions. Psychol Health Med 11(3):277–287. doi: 10.1080/13548500600595053 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Link B, Phelan JC (2001) Conceptualizing stigma. Annu Rev Sociol 27:363–385. doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.27.1.363 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Schomerus G, Matschinger H, Angermeyer MC (2009) The stigma of psychiatric treatment and help-seeking intentions for depression. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 259(5):298–306. doi: 10.1007/s00406-009-0870-y PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Livingston JD, Boyd JE (2010) Correlates and consequences of internalized stigma for people living with mental illness: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Soc Sci Med 71:2150–2161. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.09.030 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cavelti M, Kvrgic S, Beck EM, Rusch N, Vauth R (2011) Self-stigma and its relationship with insight, demoralization, and clinical outcome among people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Compr Psychiatry. doi: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2011.08.001 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Corrigan PW, Sokol KA, Rusch N (2011) The impact of self-stigma and mutual help programs on the quality of life of people with serious mental illnesses. Community Ment Health J. doi: 10.1007/s10597-011-9445-2 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Elkington KS, Hackler D, McKinnon K, Borges C, Wright ER, Wainberg ML (2012) Perceived mental illness stigma among youth in psychiatric outpatient treatment. J Adolesc Res 27(2):290–317. doi: 10.1177/0743558411409931 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Moses T (2010) Being treated differently: stigma experiences with family, peers, and school staff among adolescents with mental health disorders. Soc Sci Med 70(7):985–993. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.12.022 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Munson MR, Floersch JE, Townsend L (2009) Attitudes toward mental health services and illness perceptions among adolescents with mood disorders. Child Adolesc Soc Work J 26(5):447–466. doi: 10.1007/s10560-009-0174-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chandra A, Minkovitz CS (2007) Factors that influence mental health stigma among 8th grade adolescents. J Youth Adolesc 36(6):763–774. doi: 10.1007/s10964-006-9091-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Faulkner G, Irving H, Paglia-Boak A, Adlaf E (2010) Adolescent knowledge of schizophrenia and social distancing: a province-wide survey. J Community Psychol 38(8):933–942. doi: 10.1002/jcop.20406 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jorm AF, Wright A (2008) Influences on young people’s stigmatising attitudes towards peers with mental disorders: national survey of young Australians and their parents. Br J Psychiatry 192(2):144–149. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.107.039404 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Reavley NJ, Jorm AF (2011) Young people’s stigmatizing attitudes towards people with mental disorders: findings from an Australian national survey. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 45(12):1033–1039. doi: 10.3109/00048674.2011.614216 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wahl OE (2002) Children’s views of mental illness: a review of the literature. Psychiatr Rehabil Skills 6(2):134–158. doi: 10.1080/10973430208408430 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Watson AC, Miller FE, Lyons JS (2005) Adolescent attitudes toward serious mental illness. JNMD 193(11):769–772. doi: 10.1097/01.nmd.0000185885.04349.99 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wright A, Jorm AF, Mackinnon AJ (2011) Labeling of mental disorders and stigma in young people. Soc Sci Med 73(4):498–506. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.06.015 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Calear AL, Griffiths KM, Christensen H (2011) Personal and perceived depression stigma in Australian adolescents: magnitude and predictors. J Affect Disord 129(1–3):104–108. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2010.08.019 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Collins PY, Patel V, Joestle SS (2011) Grand challenges in global mental health. Nature 475(7354):27–30. doi: 10.1038/475027a Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dalky HF (2012) Mental illness stigma reduction interventions: review of intervention trials. West J Nurs Res 34(4):520–547. doi: 10.1177/0193945911400638 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Heflinger CA, Hinshaw SP (2010) Stigma in child and adolescent mental health services research: understanding professional and institutional stigmatization of youth with mental health problems and their families. Adm Policy Ment Health 37(1–2):61–70. doi: 10.1007/s10488-010-0294-z PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Heijnders M, Van Der Meij S (2006) The fight against stigma: an overview of stigma-reduction strategies and interventions. Psychol Health Med 11(3):353–363. doi: 10.1080/13548500600595327 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Corrigan PW, Roe D, Tsang HW (2011) Challenging the stigma of mental illness: lessons for therapists and advocates. Wiley, MaldenCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Livingston JD, Milne T, Fang ML, Amari E (2012) The effectiveness of interventions for reducing stigma related to substance use disorders: a systematic review. Addiction 107(1):39–50. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2011.03601.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hinshaw SP (2007) The mark of shame: stigma of mental illness and an agenda for change. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Crisp A, Gelder M, Goddard E, Meltzer H (2005) Stigmatization of people with mental illnesses: a follow-up study within the changing minds campaign of the Royal college of psychiatrists. World Psychiatry 4(2):106–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pitre N, Stewart S, Adams S, Bedard T, Landry S (2007) The use of puppets with elementary school children in reducing stigmatizing attitudes towards mental illness. J Ment Health 16(3):415–429. doi: 10.1080/09638230701299160 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Schulze B, Richter-Werling M, Matschinger H, Angermeyer MC (2003) Crazy? So what! Effects of a school project on students’ attitudes towards people with schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatr Scand 107(2):142–150. doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0447.2003.02444.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Schachter HM, Girardi A, Ly M, Ds Lacroix, Lumb AB, van Berkom J, Gill R (2008) Effects of school-based interventions on mental health stigmatization: a systematic review. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health 2(1):18. doi: 10.1186/1753-2000-2-18 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Stuart H (2006) Reaching out to high school youth: the effectiveness of a video-based antistigma program. Can J Psychiatry 51(10):647–653PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Pejović-Milovančević M, Lečić-Toševski D, Tenjović L, Popović-Deušić S, Draganić-Gajić S (2009) Changing attitudes of high school students towards peers with mental health problems. Psychiatria Danubina 21(2):213–219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yamaguchi S, Mino Y, Uddin S (2011) Strategies and future attempts to reduce stigmatization and increase awareness of mental health problems among young people: a narrative review of educational interventions. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 65(5):405–415. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1819.2011.02239.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Romer D, Bock M (2008) Reducing the stigma of mental illness among adolescents and young adults: the effects of treatment information. J Health Commun 13(8):742–758. doi: 10.1080/10810730802487406 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Yap MB, Jorm AF (2011) The influence of stigma on first aid actions taken by young people for mental health problems in a close friend or family member: findings from an Australian national survey of youth. J Affect Disord 134(1–3):473–477. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2011.05.039 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sartorius N (2010) Short-lived campaigns are not enough. Nature 468(7321):163–165. doi: 10.1038/468163a PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Corrigan PW (2012) Where is the evidence supporting public service announcements to eliminate mental illness stigma? Psychiatr Serv 63(1):79–82. doi: 10.1176/appi.ps.201100460 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Dumesnil H, Verger P (2009) Public awareness campaigns about depression and suicide: a review. Psychiatr Serv 60(9):1203–1213. doi: 10.1176/appi.ps.60.9.1203 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Griffiths KM, Christensen H, Jorm AF, Evans K, Groves C (2004) Effect of web-based depression literacy and cognitive-behavioural therapy interventions on stigmatising attitudes to depression: randomised controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry 185(4):342–349. doi: 10.1192/bjp.185.4.342 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Link B, Phelan JC, Bresnahan M, Stueve A, Pescosolido BA (1999) Public conceptions of mental illness: labels, causes, dangerousness, and social distance. Am J Public Health 89(9):1328–1333. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.89.9.1328 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Faul F, Erdfelder E, Buchner A, Lang A-G (2009) Statistical power analyses using G*Power 3.1: tests for correlation and regression analyses. Behav Res Methods 41:1149–1160. doi: 0.3758/BRM.41.4.1149 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Yap MB, Reavley NJ, Jorm AF (2012) Intentions and helpfulness beliefs about first aid responses for young people with mental disorders: findings from two Australian national surveys of youth. J Affect Disord 136(3):430–442. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2011.11.006 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Jorm AF (2000) Mental health literacy. Br J Psychiatry 177(5):396–401. doi: 10.1192/bjp.177.5.396 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Corrigan PW (2005) On the stigma of mental illness: practical strategies for research and social change. American Psychological Association, WashingtonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Corrigan PW, Calabrese JD (2005) Strategies for assessing and diminishing self-stigma. In: Corrigan PW (ed) On the stigma of mental illness: practical strategies for research and social change. American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, pp 239–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • James D. Livingston
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Andrew Tugwell
    • 1
  • Kimberly Korf-Uzan
    • 1
  • Michelle Cianfrone
    • 1
  • Connie Coniglio
    • 1
  1. 1.BC Mental Health and Addiction ServicesProvincial Health Services AuthorityVancouverCanada
  2. 2.School of CriminologySimon Fraser UniversityBurnabyCanada

Personalised recommendations