Advertisement

The measurement of poverty in psychiatric epidemiology in LMICs: critical review and recommendations

Abstract

Purpose

Studies exploring the relationship between poverty and mental health in low and middle income countries (LMICs) have produced somewhat conflicting results. This has partly been attributed to poorly operationalized and oversimplified poverty measures. This paper has two aims: (1) to review how socio-economic outcomes in psychiatric epidemiology in LMICs are measured; (2) based on this review, to provide a set of generic recommendations for measuring poverty in psychiatric epidemiology in LMIC. This is relevant for mental health researchers, and for practitioners and policy makers who use mental health research findings.

Methods

This review was part of a broader systematic review examining the association between poverty and mental illness. An analytic framework was developed to examine the definition and measurement of poverty in these studies.

Results

The majority of studies provided no definition for the concept of poverty being used, and very few measured poverty through standardized or validated methods. Many poverty indicators were broken down into extremely open-ended and vague categories, with no details on how the parameters were defined or derived, and no documentation of the time period and unit of analysis for which the poverty variable was measured.

Conclusions

This review revealed that using poverty as an indicator in mental health research in LMIC is still in its infancy, with much room for improvement. The implications of poor measurement of poverty in psychiatric epidemiology are discussed. The recommendations provided will hopefully help researchers in psychiatric epidemiology use the concept of poverty in a much more critical, systematic and appropriate manner.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 199

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

Notes

  1. 1.

    These organizations can be accessed at the following websites: Poverty Research Programme: http://www.ids.ac.uk/ids/pvty/pvprp.html); Overseas Development Institute: http://www.odi.org.uk/publications/poverty.html; Poverty Research Unit: http://www.sussex.ac.uk/Units/PRU/; Chronic Poverty Research Centre: http://www.chronicpoverty.org.

References

  1. 1.

    Araya R, Lewis G, Rojas G, Fritsch R (2003) Education and income: which is more important for mental health? J Epidemiol Commun Health 57:501–505

  2. 2.

    Flisher AJ, Lund C, Funk M, Banda M, Bhana A, Doku V et al (2007) Mental health policy development and implementation in four African countries. J Health Psychol 12:505–516

  3. 3.

    Lund C, Breen A, Flisher AJ, Swartz L, Joska J, Corrigall J et al (2007) Mental health and poverty: a systematic review of the research in low and middle income countries. J Ment Health Policy Econ 10(Supplement 1):S26–S27

  4. 4.

    Patel V, Araya R, de Lima M, Ludermir A, Todd C (1999) Women, poverty and common mental disorders in four restructuring societies. Soc Sci Med 49(11):1461

  5. 5.

    Patel VA, Kleinman A (2003) Poverty and common mental disorders in developing countries. Bull World Health Organ 81(8):609–615

  6. 6.

    Das J, Do QT, Friedman J, McKenzie D, Scott K (2007) Mental health and poverty in developing countries: Revisiting the relationship. Soc Sci Med 65(3):467–480

  7. 7.

    Mari JJ, Williams P (1986) Misclassification by psychiatric screening questionnaires. J Chronic Dis 39:371–378

  8. 8.

    Marín-León L, de Oliveira HB, Barros MB, Dalgalarrondo P, Botega NJ (2007) Social inequality and common mental disorders. Rev Bras Psiquiatr 29(3):250–253

  9. 9.

    Braveman PA, Cubbin C, Egerter S et al (2005) Socioeconomic status in health research: one size does not fit all. JAMA 294(22):2879–2888

  10. 10.

    Liberatos P, Link BG, Kelsey JL (1988) The measurement of social class in epidemiology. Epidemiol Rev 10:87–121

  11. 11.

    Williams DR (1996) Race/ethnicity and socio-economic status: measurement and methodological issues. Int J Health Serv 26:483–505

  12. 12.

    Streeten P (1998) Beyond the six veils: conceptualizing and measuring poverty. J Intern Affairs 52(1):1–31

  13. 13.

    UNDP (1991) Human development report 1991. Oxford University Press, New York

  14. 14.

    UNDP (1997) Human Development Report 1997. Oxford University Press, New York

  15. 15.

    Department of the Environment (2000) Measuring multiple deprivation at the small area level the indices of deprivation 2000. DETR, London

  16. 16.

    Morris MD (1979) Measuring the condition of the World’s poor. The physical quality of life index. Pergamon, New York

  17. 17.

    Srinivasan TN (1994) Human development: a paradigm or reinvention of the wheel? Am Econ Rev 84:238–243

  18. 18.

    Ravallion M (1997) Good and bad growth: the human development reports. World Dev 25:631–638

  19. 19.

    Myer L, Ehrlich R, Susser E (2004) Social epidemiology in South Africa. Epidemiol Rev 26:112–123

  20. 20.

    Seekings J, Nattrass N (2006) Class. Race and Inequality in South Africa. University of KwaZulu-Natal Press, Scotsville

  21. 21.

    Bradshaw D, Steyn K (2001) Poverty and chronic diseases in South Africa. South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town

  22. 22.

    Lozano R, Zurita B, Franco F, Ramírez T, Hernández P, Torres JL (2000) Mexico: Marginality, need and resource allocation at the country level. In: Whitehead M, Evans T, Diderichsen F, Bhniya A (eds) Challenging inequities in health: from ethics to action. University Press, New York/Oxford, pp 277–291

  23. 23.

    Barnes H, Wright G, Noble M, Dawes A (2007) The South African index of multiple deprivation for children: census 2001. HSRC Press, Cape Town

  24. 24.

    Wohlfarth T (1997) Socioeconomic inequality and psychopathology: are socioeconomic status and social class interchangeable? Soc Sci Med 45:399–410

  25. 25.

    Laderchi CR, Saith R, Stewart F (2003) Does it matter that we do not agree on the definitions of poverty. a comparison of four approaches. Oxford Dev Stud 31(3):243–274

  26. 26.

    Booysen F (2001) The measurement of poverty. In: Bradshaw D, Steyn K (eds) Poverty and chronic diseases in South Africa. South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town, pp 15–38

  27. 27.

    Wright G, Noble M, Magasela W (2007) Towards a democratic definition of poverty: Socially perceived necessities in South Africa. HSRC Press, Cape Town

  28. 28.

    Noble M, Ratcliffe A, Wright G (2004) Conceptualizing, defining and measuring poverty in South Africa: An argument for a consensual approach. CASASP, Oxford

  29. 29.

    Townsend P (1979) Poverty in the United Kingdom. Penguin, Harmondsworth

  30. 30.

    Townsend P (1987) Deprivation. J SocPolicy 16:125–146

  31. 31.

    Klasen S (2000) Measuring poverty and deprivation in South Africa. Rev Income Wealth 46(1):33–58

  32. 32.

    United Nations (UN) (2009) Rethinking poverty: report on the World social situation 2010. United Nations, New York

  33. 33.

    Thorbecke E (2004) Conceptual and measurement issues in poverty analysis. Discussion Paper No. 2004/04. United Nations University and World Institute for Development Economics Research, Helsinki

  34. 34.

    Sen A (1993) Capability and well-being. In: Nussbaum M, Sen MA (eds) The quality of life. Clarendon Press, Oxford

  35. 35.

    Sen A (1999) Development as freedom. Oxford, Oxford University Press

  36. 36.

    de Haan A (1998) Social exclusion: an alternative concept for the study of deprivation? IDS Bull 29(11998):10–19

  37. 37.

    Evans M (1998) Behind the rhetoric: The institutional basis of social exclusion and poverty. IDS Bulletin 29(11998):42–49

  38. 38.

    Chambers R, Conway G (1991) Sustainable rural livelihoods: practical concepts for the 21st Century. IDS Discussion Paper no, 296. Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, Brighton

  39. 39.

    Ellis F (2000) Rural livelihoods and diversity in developing countries. Oxford University Press, Oxford

  40. 40.

    Krieger N, Williams DR, Moss NE (1997) Measuring social class in US public health research: concepts, methodologies, and guidelines. Annu Rev Public Health 18:341–378

  41. 41.

    Myer L, Stein D, Grimsrud A, Seedat S, William DR (2008) Social determinants of psychological distress in a nationally-representative sample of South African adults. Soc Sci Med 66:1828–1840

  42. 42.

    Dohrenwend BP (1990) Socioeconomic status (SES) and psychiatric disorders: are the issues still compelling? Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 24:41–47

  43. 43.

    Woolard, I. & Leibbrant, M. (1999). Measuring poverty in South Africa. DPRU Working Paper No. 99/33. University of Cape Town, Development Policy Research Unit, Cape Town

  44. 44.

    Lund C, Breen A, Flisher A, Kakuma R, Corrigall J, Joska J, Swartz L, Patel V (2010) Poverty and common mental disorders in low and middle income countries: a systematic review. Soc Sci Med 71(3):517–528

  45. 45.

    Abramson JH, Gofin R, Habib J, Pridan H, Gofin J (1992) Indicators of social class: a comparative appraisal of measures for use in epidemiological studies. Soc Sci Med 16:1739–1746

  46. 46.

    World Bank (2000) World development report 2000/2001–attacking poverty. World Bank, Washington, DC

  47. 47.

    Szwarcwald CL, Bastos FI, Esteves MA (2005) State of animus among Brazilians: influence of socioeconomic context? Cadernos de Saude Publica 21 Suppl:33–42

  48. 48.

    Sattler DN, de Alvarado AM, de Castro NB, Male RV, Zetino AM, Vega R (2007) El Salvador earthquakes: relationships among acute stress disorder symptoms, depression, traumatic event exposure, and resource loss [erratum appears in J Trauma Stress. 2007 Feb;20(1):103]. J Trauma Stress 19(6):879–893

  49. 49.

    Ludermir AB (2000) Productive employment, gender and mental healthPortuguese. Cadernos de Saude Publica 16(3):647–659 (Portuguese)

  50. 50.

    Yen YC, Rebok GW, Yang MJ, Lung FW (2008) A multilevel analysis of the influence of apolipoprotein E genotypes on depressive symptoms in late-life moderated by the environment. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 32(2):479–486

  51. 51.

    da Silva MC, Fassa AG, Kriebel D (2006) Minor psychiatric disorders among Brazilian ragpickers: a cross-sectional study. Environ Health Global Access Sci Sourc 5:17

  52. 52.

    Bahar E, Henderson AS, Mackinnon AJ (1992) An epidemiological study of mental health and socioeconomic conditions in Sumatera, Indonesia. Acta Psychiatr Scand 85(4):257–263

  53. 53.

    Bhagwanjee A, Parekh A, Paruk Z, Petersen I, Subedar H (1998) Prevalence of minor psychiatric disorders in an adult African rural community in South Africa. Psychol Med 28(5):1137–1147

  54. 54.

    Pothen M, Kuruvilla A, Philip K, Joseph A, Jacob KS (2003) Common mental disorders among primary care attenders in Vellore, South India: nature, prevalence and risk factors. Int J Soc Psychiatry 49(2):119–125

  55. 55.

    Rahman A, Creed F (2007) Outcome of prenatal depression and risk factors associated with persistence in the first postnatal year: prospective study from Rawalpindi, Pakistan. J Affect Disord 100(1–3):115–121

  56. 56.

    Deyessa N, Berhane Y, Alem A, Hogberg U, Kullgren G (2008) Depression among women in rural Ethiopia as related to socioeconomic factors: a community-based study on women in reproductive age groups. Scand J Public Health 36(6):589–597

  57. 57.

    Gureje O, Kola L, Afolabi E (2007) Epidemiology of major depressive disorder in elderly Nigerians in the Ibadan Study of ageing: a community-based survey. Lancet 370(9591):957–964 (see comment)

  58. 58.

    Patel V, Kirkwood BR, Pednekar S, Weiss H, Mabey D (2006) Risk factors for common mental disorders in women. Population-based longitudinal study. Br J Psychiatry 189:547–555

  59. 59.

    Kim E, Jo SA, Hwang JY, Shin C, Kim DK, Woo EK et al (2005) A survey of depressive symptoms among South Korean adults after the Korean financial crisis of late 1997: prevalence and correlates. Ann Epidemiol 15(2):145–152

  60. 60.

    Danaci AE, Dinc G, Deveci A, Sen FS, Icelli I (2002) Postnatal depression in turkey: epidemiological and cultural aspects. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 37(3):125–129

  61. 61.

    Amoran OE, Lawoyin TO, Oni OO (2005) Risk factors associated with mental illness in Oyo State, Nigeria: a community based study. Ann Gen Psychiatry 4:19

  62. 62.

    Hackett RJ, Sagdeo D, Creed FH (2007) The physical and social associations of common mental disorder in a tribal population in South India. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 42(9):712–715

  63. 63.

    Reichenheim ME, Harpham T (1991) Maternal mental health in a squatter settlement in Rio de Janeiro. Br J Psychiatr J Mental Sci 159:683–690

  64. 64.

    Deaton A, Kozel V (2004) Data and dogma: the great Indian poverty debate. World Bank Res Obs 20(2):177–199

  65. 65.

    Green M (2005) Representing poverty and attacking representations: Some anthropological perspectives on poverty and development. GPRG Working Paper No. 9. Global Poverty Research Group, Oxford and Manchester

  66. 66.

    Harriss J (2007). Bringing politics back into poverty analysis: Why understanding social relations matters more for policy on chronic poverty than measurement. CPRC Working Paper 88. School for International Studies, Simon Fraser University Vancouver, Canada

  67. 67.

    Irwin A, Scali E (2010) Action on the social determinants of health: learning from previous experiences. Social Determinants of Health Discussion Paper 1. World Health Organization, Geneva

  68. 68.

    Patel et al. (2010) Mental disorders: equity and social determinants. In: Blas E and Kurup AS (eds.). Equity, social determinants and public health programmes. World Health Organization, Geneva, pp 115–134

  69. 69.

    Mfenyana K, Griffin M, Yogeswaran P, Modell B, Modell M, Chandia J, Nazareth I (2006) Socio-economic inequalities as a predictor of health in South Africa—the Yenza cross-sectional study. S Afr Med J 96(4):323–330

  70. 70.

    Lozada C (2003) Measuring poverty: harder than it looks. Commonwealth 7:10

  71. 71.

    Matthews KA, Gallo LC, Taylor SE (2010) Are psychosocial factors mediators of socioeconomic status and health connections? A progress report and blueprint for the future. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1186:146–173

  72. 72.

    Miranda JJ, Patel V (2005) Achieving the millennium development goals: does mental health play a role? PLoS Med 2(10):0962–0965

  73. 73.

    Saraceno B, Levav I, Kohn R (2005) The public mental health significance of research on socio-economic factors in schizophrenia and major depression. World Psychiatry 4:181–185

  74. 74.

    Dohrenwend BP, Levav I, Shrout PE, Schwartz S, Naveh G, Link BG, Skodol AE, Stueve A (1992) Socioeconomic status and psychiatric disorders: the causation-selection issue. Science 255(5047):946–952

  75. 75.

    Saraceno B, Barbui C (1997) Poverty and mental illness. Can J Psychiatry 42(3):285–290

  76. 76.

    Sachs SE, Sachs JD (2007) Mental health in the millennium development goals: not ignored. PLoS Med Public Libr Sci 4(1):e56 (comment)

  77. 77.

    Patel V (2001) Poverty, inequality, and mental health in developing countries. In: Leon DA, Walt G (eds) Poverty, inequality and health: an international perspective. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 247–262

  78. 78.

    Johnson JG, Cohen P, Dohrenwend BP, Link BG, Brooks JS (1999) A longitudinal investigation of social causation and social selection processes involved in the association between socioeconomic status and psychiatric disorders. J Abnorm Psychol 108:490–499

  79. 79.

    HO W (2007) Breaking the vicious cycle between mental ill-health and poverty. Mental health core to development information sheet, sheet 1. World Health Organization, Geneva

  80. 80.

    Diez Roux AV et al (2006) Neighborhood of residence and incidence of coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med 345(2):99–106

  81. 81.

    Kawachi I, Kennedy BP, Lochner K, Prothrow-Stith D (1997) Social capital, income inequality, and mortality. Am J Public Health 87(9):1491–1498

  82. 82.

    Almedom AM (2005) Social capital and mental health: an interdisciplinary review of primary evidence. Soc Sci Med 61(5):943–964

  83. 83.

    Truong KD, Ma S (2006) A systematic review of relations between neighborhoods and mental health. J Mental Health Policy Econ 9:137–154

  84. 84.

    Addison T, Hulme D, Kanbur R (2008) Poverty dynamics: measurement and understanding from an interdisciplinary perspective. Q-Squared Working Paper No. 52. Centre For International Studies: University of Toronto, Toronto

  85. 85.

    Aliber M (2003) Chronic poverty in South Africa: incidence, causes and policies. World Dev 31(3):473–490

  86. 86.

    McKay A, Lawson D (2003) Assessing the extent and nature of chronic poverty in low income countries: issues and evidence. World Dev 31(3):425–440

  87. 87.

    Galobardes B, Lynch JW, Smith GD (2004) Childhood socioeconomic circumstances and cause-specific mortality in adulthood: systematic review and interpretation. Epidemiological Reviews 26:7–21

  88. 88.

    Kuh D, Ben-Shlomo Y (1997) A life course approach to chronic disease epidemiology. Oxford University Press, New York

  89. 89.

    Narayan D, Patel R, Schafft K, Rademacher A, Koch-Schulte S (1999) Can anyone hear us: voices from 47 countries? World Bank, Washington, DC

  90. 90.

    Hirschowitz R (2000) Measuring poverty in South Africa. Statistics South Africa, Pretoria

Download references

Acknowledgments

This document is an output from a project funded by the UK Department for International Development (DFID) for the benefit of developing countries. However, the views expressed are not necessarily those of or endorsed by DFID, which can accept no responsibility for such views or information or any reliance placed on them.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicting interests.

Author information

Correspondence to Sara Cooper.

Appendix: studies included in the review

Appendix: studies included in the review

  1. 1.

    Abas MA, Broadhead JC (1997) Depression and anxiety among women in an urban setting in Zimbabwe. Psychol Med 27(1):59–71.

  2. 2.

    Abolfotouh MA, Daffallah AA, Khan MY, Khattab MS, Abdulmoneim I (2001) Psychosocial assessment of geriatric subjects in Abha City, Saudi Arabia. East Mediterr Health J 7(3):481–491.

  3. 3.

    Adewuya AO, Ola BA, Aloba OO, Dada AO, Fasoto OO (2007) Prevalence and correlates of depression in late pregnancy among Nigerian women. Depression Anxiety 24(1):15–21.

  4. 4.

    Almeida-Filho N, Lessa I, Maghalaes L, Araujo M, Aquino E, James S et al (2004) Social inequality and depressive disorders in Bahia, Brazil: interactions of gender, ethnicity, and social class. Soc Sci Med 59:1339–1353.

  5. 5.

    Al-Otaibi B, Al-Weqayyan A, Taher H, Sarkhou E, Gloom A, Aseeri F et al (2007) Depressive symptoms among Kuwaiti population attending primary healthcare setting: prevalence and influence of sociodemographic factors. Med Princ Pract 16(5):384–388.

  6. 6.

    Amoran OE, Lawoyin TO, Oni OO (2005) Risk factors associated with mental illness in Oyo State, Nigeria: a community based study. Ann Gen Psychiatry 4.

  7. 7.

    Andrade L, Walters EE, Gentil V, Laurenti R (2002) Prevalence of ICD-10 mental disorders in a catchment area in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 37(7):316–325.

  8. 8.

    Araya R, Lewis G, Rojas G, Fritsch R (2003) Education and income: which is more important for mental health? J Epidemiol Commun Health 57(7):501–505.

  9. 9.

    Araya R, Montgomery A, Rojas G, Fritsch R, Solis J, Signorelli A et al (2007) Common mental disorders and the built environment in Santiago, Chile. Br J Psychiatry 190:394–401.

  10. 10.

    Araya R, Rojas G, Fritsch R, Acuna J, Lewis G (2001) Common mental disorders in Santiago, Chile: prevalence and socio-demographic correlates. Br J Psychiatry 178:228–233.

  11. 11.

    Araya R, Wynn R, Leonard R, Lewis G (1994) Psychiatric morbidity in primary health care in Santiago, Chile. Preliminary findings. Br J Psychiatry 165(4):530–533.

  12. 12.

    Arieli A, Aycheh S (1991) Psychopathology in Ethiopian Jewish immigrants. Hebrew 121(11):417–421.

  13. 13.

    Awas M, Kebede D, Alem A (1999) Major mental disorders in Butajira, southern Ethiopia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, Supplementum 397:56–64.

  14. 14.

    Aydin N, Inandi T, Karabulut N (2005) Depression and associated factors among women within their first postnatal year in Erzurum province in eastern Turkey. Women Health 41(2):1–12.

  15. 15.

    Bahar E, Henderson AS, Mackinnon AJ (1992) An epidemiological study of mental health and socioeconomic conditions in Sumatera, Indonesia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 85(4):257–263.

  16. 16.

    Bhagwanjee A, Parekh A, Paruk Z, Petersen I, Subedar H (1998) Prevalence of minor psychiatric disorders in an adult African rural community in South Africa. Psychol Med 28(5):1137–1147.

  17. 17.

    Blay SL, Andreoli SB, Fillenbaum GG, Gastal FL (2007) Depression morbidity in later life: prevalence and correlates in a developing country. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 15(9):790–799.

  18. 18.

    Bleich A, Gelkopf M, Melamed Y, Solomon Z (2006) Mental health and resiliency following 44 months of terrorism: a survey of an Israeli national representative sample. BMC Med 4:21.

  19. 19.

    Caldera T, Palma L, Penayo U, Kullgren G (2001) Psychological impact of the hurricane Mitch in Nicaragua in a one-year perspective. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 36(3):108–114.

  20. 20.

    Chaaya M, Campbell OM, El KF, Shaar D, Harb H, Kaddour A (2002) Postpartum depression: prevalence and determinants in Lebanon. Arch Women’s Ment Health 5(2):65–72.

  21. 21.

    Chandran M, Tharyan P, Muliyil J, Abraham S (2002) Post-partum depression in a cohort of women from a rural area of Tamil Nadu, India. Incidence and risk factors. Br J Psychiatry 181:499–504.

  22. 22.

    Chen CS, Chong MY, Tsang HY (2007) Clinically significant non-major depression in a community-dwelling elderly population: epidemiological findings. Intern J Geriatr Psychiatry 22(6):557–562.

  23. 23.

    Chen CH, Tan HK, Liao LR, Chen HH, Chan CC, Cheng JJ et al (2007) Long-term psychological outcome of 1999 Taiwan earthquake survivors: a survey of a high-risk sample with property damage. Compr Psychiatry 48(3):269–275.

  24. 24.

    Chibanda D, Sebit MB, Acuda SW (2002) Prevalence of major depression in deliberate self-harm individuals in Harare, Zimbabwe. East Afr Med J 79(5):263–266.

  25. 25.

    Cho MJ, Kim JK, Jeon HJ, Suh T, Chung IW, Hong JP et al (2007) Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders among Korean adults. J Nerv Men Dis 195(3):203–210.

  26. 26.

    Chong MY, Tsang HY, Chen CS, Tang TC, Chen CC, Yeh TL et al (2001) Community study of depression in old age in Taiwan: prevalence, life events and socio-demographic correlates. Br J Psychiatry 178(1):29–35.

  27. 27.

    Chuan SK, Kumar R, Matthew N, Heok KE, Pin NT (2008) Subsyndromal depression in old age: clinical significance and impact in a multi-ethnic community sample of elderly Singaporeans. Int Psychogeriatr 20(1):188–200.

  28. 28.

    Coker AO, Ohaeri JU, Lawal RA, Orija OB (2000) Specific psychiatric morbidity among diabetics at a Nigerian General Hospital. East Afr Med J 77(1):42–45.

  29. 29.

    Cwikel J, Zilber N, Feinson M, Lerner Y (2008) Prevalence and risk factors of threshold and sub-threshold psychiatric disorders in primary care. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 43(3):184–191.

  30. 30.

    da Silva MC, Fassa AG, Kriebel D (2006) Minor psychiatric disorders among Brazilian ragpickers: a cross-sectional study. Environ Health Glob Access Sci Sour 5:17.

  31. 31.

    Danaci AE, Dinc G, Deveci A, Sen FS, Icelli I (2002) Postnatal depression in turkey: epidemiological and cultural aspects. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 37(3):125–129.

  32. 32.

    Das J, Do QT, Friedman J, McKenzie D, Scott K (2007) Mental health and poverty in developing countries: Revisiting the relationship. Soc Sci Med 65(3):467–480.

  33. 33.

    Dindar I, Erdogan S (2007) Screening of Turkish women for postpartum depression within the first postpartum year: the risk profile of a community sample. Public Health Nurs 24(2):176–183.

  34. 34.

    De Lima MS, Hotopf M, Mari JJ, Beria JU, De Bastos AB, Mann A (1999) Psychiatric disorder and the use of benzodiazepines: an example of the inverse care law from Brazil. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 34(6):316–322.

  35. 35.

    Deyessa N, Berhane Y, Alem A, Hogberg U, Kullgren G (2008) Depression among women in rural Ethiopia as related to socioeconomic factors: a community-based study on women in reproductive age groups. Scand J Public Health 36(6):589–597.

  36. 36.

    Farhood LF, Noureddine SN (2003) PTSD, depression, and health status in Lebanese civilians exposed to a church explosion. Int J Psychiatr Med 33(1):39–53.

  37. 37.

    Faria NM, Facchini LA, Fassa AG, Tomasi E (1999) A cross-sectional study about mental health of farm-workers from Serra Gaucha (Brazil). Revista de Saude Publica 33(4):391–400 (Portuguese).

  38. 38.

    Fatoye FO, Adeyemi AB, Oladimeji BY (2004) Emotional distress and its correlates among Nigerian women in late pregnancy. J Obstetr Gynaecol 24(5):504–509.

  39. 39.

    Fatoye FO, Fatoye GK, Oyebanji AO, Ogunro AS (2006) Psychological characteristics as correlates of emotional burden in incarcerated offenders in Nigeria. East Afr Med J 83(10):545–552.

  40. 40.

    Ferrao YA, Shavitt RG, Bedin NR, de Mathis ME, Carlos LA, Fontenelle LF et al (2006) Clinical features associated to refractory obsessive–compulsive disorder. J Affect Disord 94(1–3):199–209.

  41. 41.

    Ganatra HA, Zafar SN, Qidwai W, Rozi S (2008) Prevalence and predictors of depression among an elderly population of Pakistan. Aging Ment Health 12(3):349–356.

  42. 42.

    Glasser S, Barell V, Shoham A, Ziv A, Boyko V, Lusky A et al (1998) Prospective study of postpartum depression in an Israeli cohort: prevalence, incidence and demographic risk factors. J Psychosom Obstetr Gynecol 19(3):155–164.

  43. 43.

    Gomez-Restrepo C, Bohorquez A, Pinto MD, Gil Laverde JF, Rondon SM, az-Granados N (2004) The prevalence of and factors associated with depression in Colombia. Pan Am J Public Health 16(6):378–386 (Spanish).

  44. 44.

    Gulseren L, Erol A, Gulseren S, Kuey L, Kilic B, Ergor G (2006) From antepartum to postpartum: a prospective study on the prevalence of peripartum depression in a semiurban Turkish community. J Reprod Med 51(12):955–960.

  45. 45.

    Gureje O, Kola L, Afolabi E (2007) Epidemiology of major depressive disorder in elderly Nigerians in the Ibadan Study of Ageing: a community-based survey. Lancet 370(9591):957–964 (see comment).

  46. 46.

    Hackett RJ, Sagdeo D, Creed FH (2007) The physical and social associations of common mental disorder in a tribal population in South India. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 42(9):712–715.

  47. 47.

    Harpham T, Grant E, Rodriguez C (2004) Mental health and social capital in Cali, Colombia. Soc Sci Med 58(11):2267–2277.

  48. 48.

    Harpham T, Huttly S, De Silva MJ, Abramsky T (2005) Maternal mental health and child nutritional status in four developing countries. J Epidemiol Commun Health 59(12):1060–1064.

  49. 49.

    Harpham T, Snoxell S, Grant E, Rodriguez C (2005) Common mental disorders in a young urban population in Colombia. Br J Psychiatry 187:161–167.

  50. 50.

    Havenaar JM, Geerlings MI, Vivian L, Collinson M, Robertson B (2008) Common mental health problems in historically disadvantaged urban and rural communities in South Africa: prevalence and risk factors. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 43(3):209–215.

  51. 51.

    Hobfoll SE, Canetti–Nisim D, Johnson RJ, Palmieri PA, Varley JD, Galea S (2008) The association of exposure, risk, and resiliency factors with PTSD among Jews and Arabs exposed to repeated acts of terrorism in Israel. J Trauma Stress 21(1):9–21.

  52. 52.

    Hosain GM, Chatterjee N, Ara N, Islam T (2007) Prevalence, pattern and determinants of mental disorders in rural Bangladesh. Public Health 121(1):18–24.

  53. 53.

    Huang CY, Musil CM, Zauszniewski JA, Wykle ML (2006) Effects of social support and coping of family caregivers of older adults with dementia in Taiwan. Int J Aging Hum Dev 63(1):1–25.

  54. 54.

    Husain N, Chaudhry IB, Afridi MA, Tomenson B, Creed F (2007) Life stress and depression in a tribal area of Pakistan. Br J Psychiatry 190:36–41.

  55. 55.

    Husain N, Creed F, Tomenson B (2000) Depression and social stress in Pakistan. Psychol Med 30(2):395–402.

  56. 56.

    Husain N, Gater R, Tomenson B, Creed F (2004) Social factors associated with chronic depression among a population–based sample of women in rural Pakistan. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 39(8):618–624.

  57. 57.

    Illanes E, Bustos L, Lagos X, Navarro N, Munoz S (2002) Associated factors to depressive symptoms and somatic symptoms in climacteric women in the city of Temuco. Revista Medica de Chile 130(8):885–891 (Spanish).

  58. 58.

    Inandi T, Bugdayci R, Dundar P, Sumer H, Sasmaz T (2005) Risk factors for depression in the first postnatal year: a Turkish study. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 40(9):725–730.

  59. 59.

    Inandi T, Elci OC, Ozturk A, Egri M, Polat A, Sahin TK (2002) Risk factors for depression in postnatal first year, in eastern Turkey. Int J Epidemiol 31(6):1201–1207.

  60. 60.

    Jadresic E, Araya R (1995) Prevalence of postpartum depression and associated factors in Santiago, Chile. Revista Medica de Chile 123(6):694–699 (Spanish)

  61. 61.

    Kalafi Y, Hagh–Shenas H, Ostovar A (2002) Mental health among Afghan refugees settled in Shiraz, Iran. Psychol Reprod 90(1):262–266.

  62. 62.

    Karam EG, Mneimneh ZN, Karam AN, Fayyad JA, Nasser SC, Chatterji S et al (2006) Prevalence and treatment of mental disorders in Lebanon: a national epidemiological survey Lancet 367(9515):1000–1006 (see comment).

  63. 63.

    Kaya M, Genc M, Kaya B, Pehlivan E (2007) Prevalence of depressive symptoms, ways of coping, and related factors among medical school and health services higher education students. Turk Psikiyatri Dergisi 18(2):137–146 (Turkish).

  64. 64.

    Kebede D, Alem A (1999) Major mental disorders in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. III. Neurotic and somatoform disorders. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, Supplementum 397:24–29.

  65. 65.

    Kebede D, Alem A, Shibire T, Deyassa N, Negash A, Beyero T et al (2006) Symptomatic and functional outcome of bipolar disorder in Butajira, Ethiopia. J Affect Disord 90(2–3):239–249.

  66. 66.

    Kim E, Jo SA, Hwang JY, Shin C, Kim DK, Woo EK et al (1997) A survey of depressive symptoms among South Korean adults after the Korean financial crisis of late 1997: prevalence and correlates. Ann Epidemiol 15(2):145–152.

  67. 67.

    Kim JM, Shin IS, Yoon JS, Stewart R (2002) Prevalence and correlates of late-life depression compared between urban and rural populations in Korea. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 17(5):409–415.

  68. 68.

    Kohn R, Vicente B, Rioseco P, Saldivia S, Torres S (2008) The mini-mental state examination: age and education distribution for a Latin American population. Aging Ment Health 12(1):66–71.

  69. 69.

    Kumar MS, Murhekar MV, Hutin Y, Subramanian T, Ramachandran V, Gupte MD (2004) Prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder in a coastal fishing village in Tamil Nadu, India, after the December 2004 tsunami. Am J Public Health 97(1):99–101.

  70. 70.

    Kuo HW, Wu SJ, Ma TC, Chiu MC, Chou SY (2007) Posttraumatic symptoms were worst among quake victims with injuries following the Chi–Chi quake in Taiwan. J Psychosom Res 62(4):495–500.

  71. 71.

    Lai TJ, Chang CM, Connor KM, Lee LC, Davidson JR (2004) Full and partial PTSD among earthquake survivors in rural Taiwan. J Psychiatr Res 38(3):313–322.

  72. 72.

    Lim L, Ng TP, Chua HC, Chiam PC, Won V, Lee T et al (2005) Generalised anxiety disorder in Singapore: prevalence, co-morbidity and risk factors in a multi-ethnic population. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 40(12):972–979.

  73. 73.

    Lima MS, Beria JU, Tomasi E, Conceicao A.T., Mari JJ. Stressful life events and minor psychiatric disorders: an estimate of the population attributable fraction in a Brazilian community-based study. Int J Psychiatry Med 26:213–224.

  74. 74.

    Liu SI, Prince M, Blizard B, Mann A (2002) The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity and its associated factors in general health care in Taiwan. Psychol Med 32(4):629–637.

  75. 75.

    Liu CY, Wang SJ, Teng EL, Fuh JL, Lin CC, Lin KN et al (1997) Depressive disorders among older residents in a Chinese rural community. Psychol Med 27(4):943–949.

  76. 76.

    Lomranz J, Hobfoll SE, Johnson R, Eyal N, Zemach M (1994) A nation’s response to attack: Israelis’ depressive reactions to the Gulf War. J Traum Stress 7(1):59–73.

  77. 77.

    Ludermir AB (2000) Productive employment, gender and mental health. Cadernos de Saude Publica 16(3):647–659 (Portuguese).

  78. 78.

    Ludermir AB, Lewis G (2001) Links between social class and common mental disorders in Northeast Brazil. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 36(3):101–107.

  79. 79.

    Ludermir AB, Lewis G (2003) Informal work and common mental disorders. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 38(9):485–489.

  80. 80.

    Marín-LeónI L, de Oliveira HB, de AB, Dalgalarrondo P, Botega NJ (2007) Social inequality and common mental disorders. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria 29(3).

  81. 81.

    Maharaj RG (2007) Depression and the nature of Trinidadian family practice: a cross-sectional study. BMC Family Pract 8:25.

  82. 82.

    Maharaj RG, Reid SD, Misir A, Simeon DT (2005) Depression and its associated factors among patients attending chronic disease clinics in southwest Trinidad. West Indian Med J 54(6):369–374.

  83. 83.

    Mendes-Chiloff CL, Ramos-Cerqueira AT, Lima MC, Torres AR (2008) Depressive symptoms among elderly inpatients of a Brazilian university hospital: prevalence and associated factors. Int Psychogeriatr 20(5):1028–1040.

  84. 84.

    Moraes IG, Pinheiro RT, Silva RA, Horta BL, Sousa PL, Faria AD (2006) Prevalence of postpartum depression and associated factors. Revista de Saude Publica 40(1):65–70 (see comment, Portuguese).

  85. 85.

    Muhwezi WW, Agren H, Neema S, Maganda AK, Musisi S (2008) Life events associated with major depression in Ugandan primary healthcare (PHC) patients: issues of cultural specificity. Int J Soc Psychiatry 54(2):144–163.

  86. 86.

    Mumford DB, Saeed K, Ahmad I, Latif S, Mubbashar MH (1997) Stress and psychiatric disorder in rural Punjab. A community survey. Br J Psychiatry 170:473–478.

  87. 87.

    Nguyen NL, Hunt DD, Scott CS (2005) Screening for depression in a primary care setting in Vietnam. J Nerv Mental Dis 193(2):144–147.

  88. 88.

    Noorbala AA, Bagheri Yazdi SA, Yasamy MT, Mohammad K (2004) Mental health survey of the adult population in Iran. Br J Psychiatry 184:70–73.

  89. 89.

    Ozcan M, Uguz F, Cilli AS (2006) The prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder and comorbidity among psychiatric outpatients. Turk Psikiyatri Dergisi 17(4):276–285 (Turkish).

  90. 90.

    Palmieri PA, Canetti-Nisim D, Galea S, Johnson RJ, Hobfoll SE (2008) The psychological impact of the Israel–Hezbollah War on Jews and Arabs in Israel: The impact of risk and resilience factors. Soc Sci Med 67(8):1208–1216.

  91. 91.

    Patel V, Chisholm D, Kirkwood BR, Mabey D (2007) Prioritizing health problems in women in developing countries: comparing the financial burden of reproductive tract infections, anaemia and depressive disorders in a community survey in India. Trop Med Int Health 12(1):130–139.

  92. 92.

    Patel V, Kirkwood BR, Pednekar S, Weiss H, Mabey D (2006) Risk factors for common mental disorders in women. Population-based longitudinal study. Br J Psychiatry 189:547–555.

  93. 93.

    Patel V, Pereira J, Coutinho L, Fernandes R, Fernandes J, Mann A (1998) Poverty, psychological disorder and disability in primary care attenders in Goa, India. Br J Psychiatry 172:533–536.

  94. 94.

    Patel V, Rodrigues M, DeSouza N (2002) Gender, poverty, and postnatal depression: a study of mothers in Goa, India. Am J Psychiatry 159(1):43–47 (see comment).

  95. 95.

    Patel V, Todd C, Winston M, Gwanzura F, Simunyu E, Acuda W et al (1997) Common mental disorders in primary care in Harare, Zimbabwe: associations and risk factors. Br J Psychiatry 171:60–64.

  96. 96.

    Patel V, Todd C, Winston M, Gwanzura F, Simunyu E, Acuda W et al (1998) Outcome of common mental disorders in Harare, Zimbabwe. Br J Psychiatry 172:53–57.

  97. 97.

    Pothen M, Kuruvilla A, Philip K, Joseph A, Jacob KS (2003) Common mental disorders among primary care attenders in Vellore, South India: nature, prevalence and risk factors. Int J Soc Psychiatry 49(2):119–125.

  98. 98.

    Qin X, Wang W, Jin Q, Ai L, Li Y, Dong G et al (2008) Prevalence and rates of recognition of depressive disorders in internal medicine outpatient departments of 23 general hospitals in Shenyang, China. J Affect Disord 110(1–2):46–54.

  99. 99.

    Rahman A, Creed F (2007) Outcome of prenatal depression and risk factors associated with persistence in the first postnatal year: prospective study from Rawalpindi, Pakistan. J Affect Disord 100(1–3):115–121.

  100. 100.

    Reichenheim ME, Harpham T (1991) Maternal mental health in a squatter settlement in Rio de Janeiro. The Br J Psychiatry J Ment Sci 159:683–690.

  101. 101.

    Robison J, Curry L, Gruman C, Covington T, Gaztambide S, Blank K (2003) Depression in later-life Puerto Rican primary care patients: the role of illness, stress, social integration, and religiosity. Int Psychogeriatr 15(3):239–251.

  102. 102.

    Rojas G, Araya R, Lewis G (2005) Comparing sex inequalities in common affective disorders across countries: Great Britain and Chile. Soc Sci Med 60(8):1693–1703.

  103. 103.

    Sabin M, Lopes CB, Nackerud L, Kaiser R, Varese L (2003) Factors associated with poor mental health among Guatemalan refugees living in Mexico 20 years after civil conflict. JAMA 290(5):635–642 (see comment).

  104. 104.

    Sattler DN, de Alvarado AM, de Castro NB, Male RV, Zetino AM, Vega R (2007) El Salvador earthquakes: relationships among acute stress disorder symptoms, depression, traumatic event exposure, and resource loss. J Trauma Stress 19(6):879–893 (erratum appears in J Trauma Stress 20(1):103).

  105. 105.

    Sayil M, Gure A, Ucanok Z (2006) First time mothers’ anxiety and depressive symptoms across the transition to motherhood: associations with maternal and environmental characteristics. Women Health 44(3):61–77.

  106. 106.

    Seino K, Takano T, Mashal T, Hemat S, Nakamura K (2008) Prevalence of and factors influencing posttraumatic stress disorder among mothers of children under five in Kabul, Afghanistan, after decades of armed conflicts. Health Qual Life Outcomes 6:29.

  107. 107.

    Seplaki CL, Goldman N, Weinstein M, Lin YH (2006) Before and after the 1999 Chi–Chi earthquake: traumatic events and depressive symptoms in an older population. Soc Sci Med 62(12):3121–3132.

  108. 108.

    Soskolne V, Bonne O, Denour AK, Shalev AY (1996) Depressive symptoms in hospitalized patients: a cross-sectional survey. Int J Psychiatr Med 26(3):271–285.

  109. 109.

    Stein DJ, Seedat S, Herman A, Moomal H, Heeringa SG, Kessler RC et al (2008) Lifetime prevalence of psychiatric disorders in South Africa. Br J Psychiatry 192(2):112–117.

  110. 110.

    Szwarcwald CL, Bastos FI, Esteves MA (2005) State of animus among Brazilians: influence of socioeconomic context? Cadernos de Saude Publica 21 Suppl:33–42.

  111. 111.

    Tang WK, Chan SS, Chiu HF, Ungvari GS, Wong KS, Kwok TC et al (2005) Poststroke depression in Chinese patients: frequency, psychosocial, clinical, and radiological determinants. J Geriatr Psychiatr Neurol 18(1):45–51.

  112. 112.

    Taqui AM, Itrat A, Qidwai W, Qadri Z (2007) Depression in the elderly: Does family system play a role? A cross-sectional study. BMC Psychiatry 7.

  113. 113.

    Todd C, Patel V, Simunyu E, Gwanzura F, Acuda W, Winston M et al (1999) The onset of common mental disorders in primary care attenders in Harare, Zimbabwe. Psychological Medicine 29(1):97–104.

  114. 114.

    Tsai YF, Chung JW, Wong TK, Huang CM (2005) Comparison of the prevalence and risk factors for depressive symptoms among elderly nursing home residents in Taiwan and Hong Kong. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 20(4):315–321.

  115. 115.

    Vorcaro CM, Lima-Costa MF, Barreto SM, Uchoa E (2001) Unexpected high prevalence of 1-month depression in a small Brazilian community: the Bambui Study. Acta Psychiatr Scand 104(4):257–263.

  116. 116.

    Vorcaro CM, Rocha FL, Uchoa E, Lima-Costa MF (2004) The burden of social phobia in a Brazilian community and its relationship with socioeconomic circumstances, health status and use of health services: the Bambui study. Int J Soc Psychiatry 50(3):216–226.

  117. 117.

    Wang SY, Jiang XY, Jan WC, Chen CH (2003) A comparative study of postnatal depression and its predictors in Taiwan and mainland China. Am J Obst Gynecol 189(5):1407–1412.

  118. 118.

    Williams DR, Herman A, Stein DJ, Heeringa SG, Jackson PB, Moomal H et al (2008) Twelve-month mental disorders in South Africa: prevalence, service use and demographic correlates in the population-based South African Stress and Health Study. Psychol Med 38(2):211–220.

  119. 119.

    Wolf AW, De A, I, Lozoff B (2002) Maternal depression in three Latin American samples. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 37(4):169–176.

  120. 120.

    Xiong H, Zhang X, Zhang Y, Ma F, Li Y, Li L (2005) An investigation of the prevalence of depressive symptoms in soldiers during military training. Prev Med 41(2):642–645.

  121. 121.

    Yen YC, Yang MJ, Yang MS, Lung FW, Shih CH, Hahn CY et al (2005) Suicidal ideation and associated factors among community-dwelling elders in Taiwan. Psychiatr Clin Neurosci 59(4):365–371.

  122. 122.

    Yen YC, Rebok GW, Yang MJ, Lung FW (2008) A multilevel analysis of the influence of Apolipoprotein E genotypes on depressive symptoms in late-life moderated by the environment. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 32(2):479–486.

  123. 123.

    Youssef RM (2005) Comprehensive health assessment of senior citizens in Al-Karak governorate, Jordan. East Mediterr Health J 11(3):334–348.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Cooper, S., Lund, C. & Kakuma, R. The measurement of poverty in psychiatric epidemiology in LMICs: critical review and recommendations. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 47, 1499–1516 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-011-0457-6

Download citation

Keywords

  • Psychiatric epidemiology
  • Poverty
  • Developing countries
  • Methodological review