Anxiety and depression in a post-September 11 sample of Arabs in the USA

  • Mona M. AmerEmail author
  • Joseph D. Hovey
Original Paper



Scant research has examined the mental health of Arab Americans. This study aimed to determine the levels of anxiety and depression in a sample of Arab Americans and compare the rates to normative community samples and samples of other minority ethnic/racial groups.


A non-probability sampling approach resulted in 601 adult Arab American respondents from 35 US states. Respondents completed anxiety and depression questionnaires at a form-based Internet site.


One-fourth of participants reported moderate to severe anxiety levels as measured by the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and one-half reported depression scores that met clinical caseness as assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). The present sample of Arab Americans reported significantly higher levels of anxiety and depression compared to standardization samples and community samples of four other minority groups.


Arab Americans may be at risk for anxiety and depression. Further studies should be conducted to replicate and validate these results, identify stressors that affect this population, and develop recommendations for clinical interventions.


Arab American Beck Anxiety Inventory Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale Anxiety Depression Ethnicity 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The American University in CairoCairoEgypt
  2. 2.Yale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA
  3. 3.Program for the Study of Immigration and Mental HealthThe University of ToledoToledoUSA
  4. 4.SAPE-Psychology Unitc/o The American University in Cairo NY OfficeNew YorkUSA

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