Does the prevalence of CD and ODD vary across cultures?

  • Glorisa CaninoEmail author
  • Guilherme Polanczyk
  • Jose J. Bauermeister
  • Luis A. Rohde
  • Paul J. Frick
Original Paper



The worldwide prevalence of conduct disorder (CD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is presented to examine the first of four criteria used in other studies to determine the validity of psychiatric disorders across cultures.


The authors searched Medline and PsycINFO from 1987 to 2008. Studies were included if they were representative of specific communities or countries and reported point prevalence of CD or ODD according to DSM-III-R or DSM-IV criteria for children 18 years or younger.


Only methodological and not geographic factors were associated with variability of the prevalence estimates.


The results are discussed in terms of their significance for the classification of disorders and the need for further research to establish the validity of these two disorders across cultures.


Conduct disorder Oppositional defiant disorder Prevalence across cultures 



This paper was supported by National Institute of Health, Research Grant # 1P50 MHO 73469 funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, as well as Grant #P60 MD0 02261-01, funded by the National Center for Minority Health and Health Disparities. We would like to acknowledge the work of Amarylis Quiñones who helped with the literature search of this manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Glorisa Canino
    • 1
    Email author
  • Guilherme Polanczyk
    • 2
  • Jose J. Bauermeister
    • 1
  • Luis A. Rohde
    • 2
  • Paul J. Frick
    • 3
  1. 1.Behavioral Sciences Research InstituteUniversity of Puerto RicoSan JuanUSA
  2. 2.Child and Adolescent Psychiatry DivisionHospital de Clinicas de Porto AlegrePorto AlegreBrazil
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyUniversity of New OrleansNew OrleansUSA

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