Advertisement

Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology

, Volume 45, Issue 11, pp 1095–1103 | Cite as

Evolution of spirituality and religiousness in chronic schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorders: a 3-years follow-up study

  • Sylvia Mohr
  • Laurence Borras
  • Isabelle Rieben
  • Carine Betrisey
  • Christiane Gillieron
  • Pierre-Yves Brandt
  • Nader Perroud
  • Philippe HugueletEmail author
Original Paper

Abstract

Purpose

Spirituality and religiousness have been shown to be highly prevalent in patients with schizophrenia. Religion can help instil a positive sense of self, decrease the impact of symptoms and provide social contacts. Religion may also be a source of suffering. In this context, this research explores whether religion remains stable over time.

Methods

From an initial cohort of 115 out-patients, 80% completed the 3-years follow-up assessment. In order to study the evolution over time, a hierarchical cluster analysis using average linkage was performed on factorial scores at baseline and follow-up and their differences. A sensitivity analysis was secondarily performed to check if the outcome was influenced by other factors such as changes in mental states using mixed models.

Results

Religion was stable over time for 63% patients; positive changes occurred for 20% (i.e., significant increase of religion as a resource or a transformation of negative religion to a positive one) and negative changes for 17% (i.e., decrease of religion as a resource or a transformation of positive religion to a negative one). Change in spirituality and/or religiousness was not associated with social or clinical status, but with reduced subjective quality of life and self-esteem; even after controlling for the influence of age, gender, quality of life and clinical factors at baseline.

Conclusions

In this context of patients with chronic schizophrenia, religion appeared to be labile. Qualitative analyses showed that those changes expressed the struggles of patients and suggest that religious issues need to be discussed in clinical settings.

Keywords

Schizophrenia Spirituality Religiousness Longitudinal study 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank all the patients for their precious and enriching testimonies. This study was supported by grant 325100-114136 from the Swiss National Science Foundation.

References

  1. 1.
    Andresen R, Oades L, Caputi P (2003) The experience of recovery from schizophrenia: towards an empirically validated stage model. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 37:586–594CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    APA (2000) DSM-IV-TR: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. American Psychiatric Association, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bellamy CD, Jarrett NC, Mowbray O, MacFarlane P, Mowbray CT, Holter MC (2007) Relevance of spirituality for people with mental illness attending consumer-centered services. Psychiatr Rehabil J 30:287–294CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Corrigan P, McCorkle B, Schell B, Kidder K (2003) Religion and spirituality in the lives of people with serious mental illness. Community Ment Health J 39:487–499CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fallot RD (2007) Spirituality and religion in recovery: some current issues. Psychiatr Rehabil J 30:261–270CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fowler J (1971) Stages of faith. Harper and Row, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Huber S (2007) Are religious beliefs relevant in daily life? In: Streib H (ed) Religion inside and outside traditional institutions. Brill Academic Publishers, Leiden, pp 211–230Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ironson G, Stuetzle R, Fletcher MA (2006) An increase in religiousness/spirituality occurs after HIV diagnosis and predicts slower disease progression over 4 years in people with HIV. J Gen Intern Med 21:S62–S68CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kay SR, Opler LA, Fiszbein A (1992) Positive and negative syndrome scale. Multi-Health Systems Inc, USAGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Koenig HG (2008) Concerns about measuring “spirituality” in research. J Nerv Ment Dis 196:349–355CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lecomte T, Corbiere M, Laisne F (2006) Investigating self-esteem in individuals with schizophrenia: relevance of the Self-Esteem Rating Scale-Short Form. Psychiatry Res 143:99–108CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Loewenthal K (2007) Positive states in religion, culture and mental health. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 125–139Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Maselko J, Buka S (2008) Religious activity and lifetime prevalence of psychiatric disorder. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 43:18–24CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mohr S, Brandt PY, Borras L, Gillieron C, Huguelet P (2006) Toward an integration of spirituality and religiousness into the psychosocial dimension of schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 163:1952–1959CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mohr S, Gillieron C, Borras L, Brandt PY, Huguelet P (2007) The assessment of spirituality and religiousness in schizophrenia. J Nerv Ment Dis 195:247–253CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mohr S, Huguelet P (2004) The relationship between schizophrenia and religion and its implications for care. Swiss Med Wkly 134:369–376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    NIMH (1976) CGI clinical global impressions. In: Guy U (ed) ECD-EU assessment for psychopharmacology. National Institute of Mental HealthGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pargament KI (1997) The psychology of religion and coping: theory, research, practice. The Guilford Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pargament KI, Koenig HG, Tarakeshwar N, Hahn J (2004) Religious coping methods as predictors of psychological, physical and spiritual outcomes among medically ill elderly patients: a two-year longitudinal study. J Health Psychol 9:713–730CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Phillips RE, Stein CH (2007) God’s will, God’s punishment, or God’s limitations? Religious coping strategies reported by young adults living with serious mental illness. J Clin Psychol 63:529–540CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rabe-Hesketh S, Skdrondal A (2005) Multilevel and longitudinal modeling using Stata. Stata Press, TexasGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Robinson EA, Cranford JA, Webb JR, Brower KJ (2007) Six-month changes in spirituality, religiousness, and heavy drinking in a treatment-seeking sample. J Stud Alcohol Drugs 68:282–290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sheehan DV, Lecrubier Y, Sheehan KH, Amorim P, Janavs J, Weiller E, Hergueta T, Baker R, Dunbar GC (1998) The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.): the development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10. J Clin Psychiatry 59S20:22–57Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Siddle R, Haddock G, Tarrier N, Faragher EB (2002) The validation of a religiosity measure for individuals with schizophrenia. Ment Health Relig Cult 5:267–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Thompson K, Kulkarni J, Sergejew AA (2000) Reliability and validity of a new Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS) for the psychoses. Schizophr Res 42:241–247CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Vaillant G, Templeton J, Ardelt M, Meyer SE (2008) The natural history of male mental health: health and religious involvement. Soc Sci Med 66:221–231CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Verghese A, John JK, Rajkumar S, Richard J, Sethi BB, Trivedi JK (1989) Factors associated with the course and outcome of schizophrenia in India. Results of a two-year multicentre follow-up study. Br J Psychiatry 154:499–503CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    WHOQOL (1998) Development of the World Health Organization WHOQOL-BREF quality of life assessment. The WHOQOL Group. Psychol Med 28:551–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Zanello A, Weber Rouget B, Gex-Fabry M, Maercker A, Guimon J (2006) Validation of the QFS measuring the frequency and satisfaction in social behaviours in psychiatric adult population. Encephale 32:45–59CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sylvia Mohr
    • 1
  • Laurence Borras
    • 1
  • Isabelle Rieben
    • 1
  • Carine Betrisey
    • 1
  • Christiane Gillieron
    • 2
  • Pierre-Yves Brandt
    • 3
  • Nader Perroud
    • 1
  • Philippe Huguelet
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of Adult PsychiatryUniversity Hospital of Geneva and University of GenevaGenevaSwitzerland
  2. 2.Psychology and Education Sciences FacultyGeneva UniversityGenève 4Switzerland
  3. 3.Faculty of TheologyLausanne UniversityLausanneSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations