Social capital and suicide in 11 European countries: an ecological analysis
- 458 Downloads
“Social capital” refers to the existence of voluntary community networks and relationships based on trust, and the use of these networks and relationships to enable positive social action. Social capital is positively associated with selected indices of mental health.
We performed an ecological investigation of the relationship between social trust (as one component of social capital) and national suicide rates in 11 European countries (n = 22,227).
There was an inverse relationship between social trust and national suicide rates (i.e. the higher the social trust, the lower was the suicide rate), after controlling for gender, age, marriage rates, standardised income and reported sadness.
Social capital may have a protective effect against suicide at the national level. Multi-level analysis, taking into account both group-level and individual-level variables, would help clarify this relationship further and guide appropriate interventions at both the group and individual levels.
KeywordsSuicide Social medicine Community networks Social capital
The authors are grateful for the comments of the members of the Outcomes of Depression International Network (ODIN) on an earlier version of this paper. This paper uses data from the ESS, an academically driven social survey designed to chart and explain the interaction between Europe’s changing institutions and the attitudes, beliefs and behaviour patterns of its diverse populations. It is funded via the European Commission’s 5th and 6th Framework Programmes, the European Science Foundation and national funding bodies in each country. The project is directed by a central co-ordinating team led by Roger Jowell at the Centre for Comparative Social Surveys, City University, London (9).
Conflict of interest statement
- 6.Boydell J, McKenzie K, van Os J, Murray R (2002) The social causes of schizophrenia: an investigation into the influence of social cohesion and social hostility. Schizophr Res 53(s):264Google Scholar
- 9.Jowell R, Team CentralCo-ordinating (2005) European Social Survey 2004/2005: Technical Report. Centre for Comparative Social Surveys, City University, LondonGoogle Scholar
- 10.Von dem Knesebeck O, Dragano N, Siegrist J (2005) Social capital and self-rated health in 21 European countries. GMS Psychosoc Med 2: Doc02. Available at: www.egms.de/en/journals/psm/2005-2/psm000011.shtml
- 11.Inc SPSS (2003) SPSS 12.0 Base Users Guide. Prentice-Hall Regents, Upper Saddle River, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
- 12.Ongena Y (2003) Pre-testing the ESS-questionnaire using interaction analysis. Centre for Comparative Social Surveys, City University, London. http://www.europeansocialsurvey.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=62&Itemid=96
- 16.Williams M (1997) Suicide and attempted suicide. Penguin Books, LondonGoogle Scholar