Depressive symptoms and levels of C-reactive protein
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Depression and depressive symptoms have been repeatedly linked to elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) but questions remain as to the statistical robustness of the association and particularly whether the association between depression and CRP reflects the presence of a chronic disease.
A random sample of 6,126 men and women aged 45–69 years was examined in a cross-sectional study in seven towns in the Czech Republic. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CESD) scale.
Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression score was significantly related to increased levels of CRP in a linear fashion. After controlling for a range of potential confounders, subjects with depressive symptoms (CESD score ≥ 16) had CRP concentrations 0.43 mg/l (95% CI 0.16–0.72) higher than those without symptoms. The association remained significant when study sample was restricted to healthy subjects; among individuals who did not report any chronic disease, the difference between those with and without depressive symptoms was 0.44 mg/l (95% CI 0.14–0.74), and among persons who did not visit a doctor in the last 12 months the difference was 1.20 mg/l (95% CI 0.52–1.87).
These results confirm that there is a statistically robust association between depressive symptoms and increased levels of CRP. We did not find evidence that the association is due presence of a chronic condition.
Keywordsdepressive symptoms CRP inflammation
This study is funded by grants from the Wellcome Trust “Determinants of Cardiovascular Diseases in Eastern Europe: A multi-centre cohort study” (reference number 064947/Z/01/Z) and “Determinants of Cardiovascular Diseases in Eastern Europe: Longitudinal follow-up of a multi-centre cohort study (The HAPIEE Project)” (reference number 081081/Z/06/Z); a grant from the National Institute on Aging “Health disparities and aging in societies in transition (the HAPIEE study)”, grant number 1R01 AG23522-01; and a grant from MacArthur Foundation “Health and Social Upheaval (a research network)”. We would like to thank local collaborators and interviewers in Havirov, Karvina, Jihlava, Usti nad Labem, Liberec, Hradec Kralove, Kromeriz and Prague.
Competing interests None of the authors have any competing interest in connection with this work.
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