A prevalence study of current tobacco smoking in later life community and its association with sociodemographic factors, physical health and mental health status

  • Valeska Marinho
  • Sergio Luís Blay
  • Sérgio Baxter Andreoli
  • Fábio Gastal



Evaluate the frequency of current smoking in elderly people living in urban areas of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.


Cross-sectional design. A representative sample of 6,961 elderly, randomly selected subjects, living in a community, was examined to estimate the frequency of current tobacco smoking. Tobacco use was measured by means of a household questionnaire administered by trained interviewers that inquired about current tobacco use, sociodemographic characteristics, self-rated physical and health status. Mental health was evaluated using the Short Psychiatric Evaluation Schedule (SPES).


The prevalence of tobacco use was 28.9% among men, 13.6% among women and 18.8% for both sexes. Male gender (OR = 3.25), low income (OR = 1.52), years of schooling (illiterate) (OR = 1.35), non-Protestant religion (OR = 2.17) and absence of physical exercise (OR = 1.21) presented positive and independent association with tobacco use. Presence of pulmonary disease (OR = 1.93) and mental distress (OR = 1.32) and absence of cardiac disease (OR = 1.51), high blood pressure (OR = 1.51) and diabetes (OR = 1.50) were independently associated with an increased chance of current tobacco use. Increasing age (OR = 0.93) and marital status (married) (OR = 0.66) presented independent and negative association with smoking.


Factors associated with an increased chance of tobacco smoking were: being men, illiterate, with lower income, presence of respiratory and mental disease, and absence of cardiac disease, high blood pressure and diabetes. Factors associated with a decreased risk of tobacco smoking were: aging, exercise, Protestant religion and marriage.


High Blood Pressure Cardiac Disease Elderly Individual Mental Distress Sociodemographic Factor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Araya R, Gaete J, Rojas G, Fritsch R, Lewis G (2007) Smoking and common mental disorders: a population-based survey in Santiago, Chile. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol [Epub ahead of print]. Avaiable online: doi: 10.1007/s00127-007-0238-4
  2. 2.
    Beckett M, Weinstein M, Goldman N, Yu-Hsuan L (2000) Do health interview surveys yield reliable data on chronic illness among older respondents? Am J Epidemiol 151(3):315–323PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bergmann MM, Byers T, Freedman DS, Mokdad A (1998) Validity of self-reported diagnoses leading to hospitalization: a comparison of self-reports with hospital records in a prospective study of American adults. Am J Epidemiol 147(10):969–977PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Blay SL, Mari JJ, Ramos LR, Ferraz MPT (1991) The use of the Clinical Interview Schedule for the evaluation of mental health in the aged community. Psychol Med 21:525–530PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Blay SL, Ramos LR, Mari JJ (1988) Validity study of the Brazilian version of the OARS mental health screening questionnaire. J Am Geriatr Soc 36:687–692PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Breslau N, Kilbey MM, Andreski P (1992) Nicotine withdrawal symptoms and psychiatric disorders: findings from an epidemiologic study of young adults. Am J Psychiatry 149(4):464–469PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Carosella AM, Ossip-Klein DJ, Watt CA, Podgorski C (2002) Smoking history, knowledge, and attitudes among older residents of a long-term care facility. Nicotine Tob Res 4(2):161–169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Clausen F, Sandberg E, Ingstad B, Hjortdahl P (2000) Morbidity and health care utilizations among elderly people in Mmankgodi Village, Botswana. J Epidemiology Community Health 54:58–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Colsher PL, Wallace RB, Pomrehn PR, LaCroix AZ, Cornoni-Huntley J, Blazer D, Scherr PA, Berkman L, Hennekens CH (1990) Demographic and health characteristics of elderly smokers: results from established populations for epidemiologic studies of the elderly. Am J Prev Med 6(2):61–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cox HS, Williams JW, de Courten MP, Chitson P, Tuomilehto J, Zimmet PZ (2000) Decreasing prevalence of cigarette smoking in the middle income country of Mauritius: questionnaire survey. BMJ 321(7257):345–349PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Critchley J, Capewell S (2005) Smoking cessation for the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 2, 2005. Update Software, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ganiwijaya T, Sjukrudin E, Backer GD, Suhana D, Brotoprawiro S, Sukandar H (1995) Prevalence of cigarette smoking in a rural area of West Java, Indonesia. Tob Control 4:335–337Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    George LK, Fillenbaum GG (1985) OARS methodology. A decade of experience in geriatric assessement. J Am Ger Soc 33:607–615Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gilmore AB, McKee M, Rose R (2001a) Prevalence and determinants of smoking in Belarus: a national household survey, 2000. Eur J Epidemiol 17:245–253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gilmore AB, McKee M, Telishevska M, Rose R (2001b) Epidemiology of smoking in Ukraine, 2000. Prev Med 33(5):453–461PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gilmore A, Pomerleau J, McKee M, Rose R et al (2004) Prevalence of smoking in 8 countries of the former Soviet Union: results from the living conditions, lifestyles and health study. Am J Public Health 94(12):2177–2187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Goldberg DP, Cooper B, Eastwood MR, Kedward HB, Shepherd M (1970) A standardized psychiatric interview for the use in community surveys. B J Prev Soc Med 24:18–23Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hendrie HC, Osuntokun BO, Hall KS, Ogunniyi AO, Hui SL, Unverzagt FW, Gureje O, Rodenberg CA, Baiyewu, Musick BS (1995) Prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease and dementia in two communities: Nigerian Africans and African Americans. Am J Psychiatry 152:1485–1492PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hu TW, Tsai YW (2000) Cigarette consumption in rural China: survey results from 3 provinces. Am J Public Health 90(11):1785–1787PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hughes JR, Hatsukami DK, Mitchell JE, Dahlgren LA (1986) Prevalence of smoking among psychiatric outpatients. Am J Psychiatry 143(8):993–997PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    IBGE (1997) Governo do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os idosos do Rio Grande do Sul. Relatório de Pesquisa. Conselho Estadual do Idoso. Porto Alegre, CEIGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jarallah JS, al-Rubeaan KA, al-Nuaim AR, al-Ruhaily AA, Kalantan KA (1999) Prevalence and determinants of smoking in three regions of Saudi Arabia. Tob Control Spring 8(1):53–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Jenkins CN, Dai PX, Ngoc DH, Kinh HV, Hoang TT, Bales S, Stewart S, McPhee SJ (1997) Tobacco use in Vietnam. Prevalence, predictors, and the role of the transnational tobacco corporations. JAMA 277(21):1726–1731PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kamimoto L, Easton AN, Maurice E, Husten CG, Macera CA (1999) Surveillance for five health risks among older adults – United States, 1993–1997. In: CDC Surveillance Summaries, December 17, 1999. MMWR 48(no. ss-8), pp 89–126Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    LaCroix AZ, Lang J, Scherr P, Wallace RB, Cornoni-Huntley J, Berkman L, Curb JD, Evans D, Hennekens CH (1991) Smoking and mortality among older men and women in three communities. N Engl J Med 324(23):1619–1625PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lasser K, Boyd JW, Woolhandler S, Himmelstein DU, McCormick D, Bor DH (2000) Smoking and mental illness: a population-based prevalence study. JAMA 284(20):2606–2610PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lau EM, Lee P, Lynn H, Sham A, Woo J (2003) The epidemiology of cigarette smoking in Hong Kong Chinese women. Prev Med 37(5):383–388PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lima-Costa MF, Barreto SM, Uchôa E, Firmo JOA, Vidigal PG, Guerra HL (2001) The Bambuí Health and Aging Study (BHAS): prevalence of risk factors and use of preventive health care services. Pan Am J Public Health 9(4):219–227Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lima-Costa MF (2004) A saúde dos adultos na região metropolitana de Belo Horizonte: um estudo epidemiológico de base populacional. Belo Horizonte, Nespe: Fiocruz / UFMG, 132pGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lolio CA, Souza JMP, Santo AH, Buchalla CM (1993) Prevalência de tabagismo em localidade urbana da região sudeste do Brasil. Rev Saúde Pública 27(4):262–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Maxwell CJ, Hirdes JP (1993) The prevalence of smoking and implications for quality of life among the community-based elderly. Am J Prev Med 9:338–345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    McKee M, Bobak M, Rose R, Shkolnikov V, Chenet L, Leon D (1998) Patterns of smoking in Russia. Tob Control 7:22–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    National Center for Health Statistics (1994) Evaluation of National Health Interview Survey diagnostic reporting. Vital Health Stat 2(120):1–116Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Østbye T, Taylor DH, Jung SH (2002) A longitudinal study of the effects of tobacco smoking and other modifiable risk factors on ill health in middle-aged and old Americans: results from the Health and Retirement Study and Asset and Health Dynamics among the Oldest Old survey. Prev Med 34(3):334–345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Patrick DL, Cheadle A, Thompson DC, Diehr P, Koepsell T, Kinne S (1994) The validity of self-reported smoking: a review and meta-analysis. Am J Public Health 84(7):1086–1093PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Peixoto SV, Firmo JO, Lima-Costa MF (2005) Factors associated to smoking habit among older adults (The Bambui Health and Aging Study). Rev Saude Publica 39(5):746–753PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Pfeiffer E (1975) A short portable mental status questionnaire for the assessment of organic brain deficit in elderly patients. J Am Geriatr Soc 23:433–440PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Pomerleau CS, Zucker AN, Stewart AJ (2003) Patterns of depressive symptomatology in women smokers, ex-smokers, and never-smokers. Addict Behav 28(3):575–582PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Rani M, Bonu S, Jha P, Nguyen SN, Jamjoum L (2003) Tobacco use in India: prevalence and predictors of smoking and chewing in a national cross sectional household survey. Tob Control 12:e4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Santos AC, Barros H (2004) Smoking patterns in a community sample of Portuguese adults, 1999–2000. Prev Med 38:114–119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Shapo L, Gilmore AB, Coker R, McKee M, Shapo E (2003) Prevalence and determinants of smoking in Tirana city, Albania: a population-based survey. Public Health 117(4): 228–236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Smedslund G, Ahn DK (1998) Smoking initiation and cessation in Norway and the United States: a comparison of two cross-sectional surveys. J Subst Abuse 10(4):397–410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Steyn K, Bradshaw D, Norman R, Laubscher R, Saloojee Y (2002) Tobacco use in South Africans during 1998: the first demographic and health survey. J Cardiovasc Risk 9(3):161–170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Subramanian SV, Nandy S, Kelly M, Gordon D, Davey Smith G (2004) Patterns and distribution of tobacco consumption in India: cross sectional multilevel evidence from the 1998–9 national family health survey. BMJ 328(7443):801–806PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    White V, Hill D, Siahpush M, Bobevski I (2003) How has the prevalence of cigarette smoking changed among Australian adults? Trends in smoking prevalence between 1980 and 2001. Tob Control 12(Suppl 2):ii67–ii74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Wiecha JM, Lee V, Hodgkins J (1998) Patterns of smoking, risk factors for smoking, and smoking cessation among Vietnamese men in Massachusetts (United States). Tob Control 7:27–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Williams CD, Lewis-Jack O, Johnson K, Adams-Campbell L (2001) Environmental influences, employment status, and religious activity predict current cigarette smoking in the elderly. Addict Behav 26(2):297–301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Woodward A, Newland H, Kinahoi M (1994) Smoking in the Kingdom of Tonga: a report from a national survey. Tob Control 3:41–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Woollery T, Trosclair A, Husten C, Caraballo RC, Kahende J (2003) Cigarette smoking among adults—United States, 2001. MMWR 52(40):953–954Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    World Health Organization (WHO) (2002) The smoker’s body. Tobacco Free Initiative, WHO, 2002. Available at: www.who.int/tobacco/resources/publications/en. Accessibility verified 18 November 2007
  51. 51.
    World Health Organization (WHO) (2007) Western Pacific Regional Office. Country profiles, tobacco or health 2000. WHO, 2000. Available at: www.wpro.who.int. Accessibility verified 18 November 2007
  52. 52.
    Yong HH, Borland R, Siahpush M (2005) Quitting-related beliefs, intentions, and motivations of older smokers in four countries: findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey. Addict Behav 30(4):777–788PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Valeska Marinho
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Sergio Luís Blay
    • 4
  • Sérgio Baxter Andreoli
    • 4
  • Fábio Gastal
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.Center for Alzheimer Disease and Related Disorders (CDA)Institute of Psychiatry (IPUB), Federal University of Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrazil
  2. 2.Eli Lilly and CompanySao PauloBrazil
  3. 3.R. Bento LisboaRio de JaneiroBrazil
  4. 4.Dept. of PsychiatryEscola Paulista de Medicina – UNIFESP, Federal University of São PauloSao PauloBrazil
  5. 5.Medical School, Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG, Brazil)Belo HorizonteBrazil
  6. 6.UNIMEDBelo HorizonteBrazil

Personalised recommendations