Smoking and common mental disorders: a population-based survey in Santiago, Chile
- 141 Downloads
Smoking and common mental disorders (CMD), anxiety and depression, tend to co-exist and are important public health challenges for countries at all levels of development. We aimed to study the association between smoking and common mental disorders after adjusting for alcohol, illicit drug use and other confounders.
Cross-sectional household survey. CMD were assessed with a detailed psychiatric interview and smoking, alcohol, and illicit drug use with self-reported questionnaires.
About 3,870 randomly selected adults were interviewed of whom 12.9% (95% CI 12–15) met criteria for ICD-10 CMD diagnoses. 38% (36–40) of the respondents were current smokers and 11% (10–13) ex-smokers. There was a robust association between heavier smoking and the presence and severity of CMD. However there were no major differences between non-smokers, ex-smokers and light smokers. In the fully adjusted models those individuals with ICD-10 CMD were significantly more likely to be current smokers [OR 1.6 (1.1–2.2)]. Smoking was also strongly associated with drinking heavily [OR 5.4 (4.0–7.3)] and illicit drug use [(OR 2.1 (1.1–4.1)] but there were no significant interactions.
Smoking is highly prevalent and associated with CMD and other addictive behaviours in Chile. These are major public health problems in need of urgent action.
Keywordssmoking common mental disorders depression anxiety developing countries
We would like to thank all the interviewers and interviewees who participated in this study. The European Community funded this study but had no involvement in the analysis of the results.
- 3.Babor T, De la Fuente J, Saunders J, Grant M (1989) AUDIT: the alcohol use disorders identification test, guidelines for use in primary care. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
- 11.Fuentealba R, Cumsille F, Araneda JC, Molina C (2006) Consumption of licit and illicit drugs in Chile: results of the 1998 study and comparison with the 1994 and 1996 studies. Revista Panamericana de la Salud 7:79–87Google Scholar
- 16.Kish L (1965) Survey sampling. Wiley, LondonGoogle Scholar
- 20.Meltzer H, Gill B, Petticrew M, Hinds K (1995) OPCS surveys of psychiatric morbidity. Report 1. The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among adults aged 16–64 living in private households in Great Britain. HMSO, LondonGoogle Scholar
- 22.Ministerio de Salud (1999) Las enfermedades mentales en Chile: magnitud y consecuencias. Ministerio de Salud, Santiago, ChileGoogle Scholar
- 23.Ministerio del Interior CONACE (2004) Sexto estudio nacional de drogas en la poblacion general de Chile. Ministerio del Interior, Santiago, ChileGoogle Scholar
- 31.Shafey O, Dolwick S, Guindon GE (2003) Tobacco Control Countries Profiles 2003. In: Shafey O, Dolwick S, Guindon GE (eds) American Cancer Society, Georgia, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
- 32.STATA (2003) STATA version 8.0. Stata Corp., TexasGoogle Scholar
- 34.World Health Organisation (1999) The World Health Report 1999: Making a difference. WHO, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar