Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology

, Volume 40, Issue 9, pp 681–690 | Cite as

Epidemiology of psychiatric and alcohol disorders in Ukraine

Findings from the Ukraine World Mental Health survey
  • Evelyn J. Bromet
  • Semyon F. Gluzman
  • Volodymyr I. Paniotto
  • Charles P. M. Webb
  • Nathan L. Tintle
  • Victoria Zakhozha
  • Johan M. Havenaar
  • Zinoviy Gutkovich
  • Stanislav Kostyuchenko
  • Joseph E. Schwartz
Original Paper

Abstract

Background

This study presents the lifetime, 12-month, and 1-month prevalence estimates of nine psychiatric and alcohol disorders in Ukraine assessed as part of the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) research program. The Ukraine WMH survey is the first psychiatric epidemiologic study in a former Soviet Union country to administer a structured psychiatric interview to a nationally representative sample.

Method

In 2002, a national probability sample of 4,725 respondents ages 18 and older were interviewed with the WMH version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI). Prevalence estimates, age-of-onset curves, comorbidity, demographic and geographic risk factors, and treatment seeking were examined.

Results

Close to one third of the population experienced at least one Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) disorder in their lifetime, 17.6% experienced an episode in the past year, and 10.6% had a current disorder. There was no gender difference in the overall prevalence rates. In men, the most common diagnoses were alcohol disorders (26.5% lifetime) and mood disorders (9.7% lifetime); in women, they were mood disorders (20.8% lifetime) and anxiety disorders (7.9% lifetime). The odds ratios for most pairs of disorders were highly significant. Age of onset was primarily in the teens and early 20s. Age, education, and living in the Eastern region of Ukraine were significant risk factors across disorders, with respondents older than 50 years having the highest prevalence of mood disorder and the lowest prevalence of alcoholism and intermittent explosive disorder. Only a minority of respondents talked to a professional about their symptoms.

Conclusion

Prevalence estimates of alcoholism among men and recent depression among women were higher in Ukraine than in comparable European surveys. The results argue for the need to develop and implement educational programs focused on the recognition and treatment of mental and alcohol disorders for the general population, psychiatrists, and general medical providers, who are the main source of mental health care.

Keywords

Ukraine Mental disorders alcoholism epidemiology WMH survey Former Soviet Union prevalence risk factors 

References

  1. 1.
    Andrade L, Walter EE, Gentil V, Laurenti R (2002) Prevalence of ICD-10 mental disorders in a catchment area in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 37:316–325CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anthony JC, Folstein M, Romanoski AJ, Von Korff MR, Nestadt GR, Chahal R, Merchant A, Brown CH, Shapiro S, Kramer M (1985) Comparison of the lay diagnostic interview schedule and a standardized psychiatric diagnosis. Experience in Eastern Baltimore. Arch Gen Psychiatry 42:667–675PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ayuso-Mateos JL, Vazquez-Barquero JL, Dowrick C, Lehtinen V, Dalgard OS, Casey P, Wilkinson C, Lasa L, Page H, Dunn G, Wilkinson G, ODIN Group (2001) Depressive disorders in Europe: prevalence figures from the ODIN study. Br J Psychiatry 179:308–314CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bijl RV, Ravelli A, van Zessen G (1998) Prevalence of psychiatric disorder in the general population: results of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS). Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 33:587–595CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bijl RV, de Graaf R, Hiripi E, Kessler RC, Kohn R, Offord DR, Ustun B, Vicente B, Vollebergh WAM, Walters EE, Wittchen H-U (2003) The prevalence of treated and untreated mental disorders in five countries. Health Aff 22:122–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bromet EJ, Goldgaber D, Carlson G, Panina N, Golovakha E, Gluzman SF, Gilbert T, Gluzman D, Lyubsky S, Schwartz JE (2000) Children's well-being 11 years after the Chornobyl catastrophe. Arch Gen Psychiatry 57:563–571CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Coccaro EF, Schmidt CA, Samuels JF, Nestadt G (2004) Lifetime and 1-month prevalence rates of intermittent explosive disorder in a community sample. J Clin Psychiatry 65:820–824PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cooper B, Singh B (2000) Population research and mental health policy: bridging the gap. Br J Psychiatry 176:407–411CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Genov N (2000) Global trends and Eastern European societal transformation. Int Soc Sci J 52:539–647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gluzman SF (1991) Abuse of psychiatry: analysis of the guilt of medical personnel. J Med Ethics 17(Suppl):19–20Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gluzman SF, Golovakha YI, Panina NV (1992) First Ukrainian psychiatry poll. The Psychiatric Times 47–49Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Havenaar JM, Rumyantzeva GM, Filipenko VV, van den Brink W, Poelijoe NW, van den Bout J, Romasenko L (1995) Experiences with a checklist for DSM-III-R in the Russian Federation and Belarus. A study about the interrater reliability and the concurrent validity of the Munich Diagnostic Checklist for DSM-III-R. Acta Psychiatr Scand 92:419–424PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Horne S (1999) Domestic violence in Russia. Am Psychol 54:55–61CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hosmer DW, Lemeshow S (1989) Applied logistic regression. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hraba J, Lorenz FO, Pechacova Z (1997) Age and depression in the post-Community Czech Republic. Res Aging 19:442–461Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kaplan EL, Meier P (1958) Nonparametric estimation from incomplete observations. J Am Stat Assoc 53:457–481Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kendler KS, Gallagher TJ, Abelson JM, Kessler RC (1996) Lifetime prevalence, demographic risk factors, and diagnostic validity of nonaffective psychosis as assessed in a US community sample. The National Comorbidity Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry 53:1022–1031PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kessler RC, Ustun TB (2004) The World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative Version of the World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Int J Methods Psychiatr Res 13:93–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kessler RC, McGonagle KA, Zhao S, Nelson CB, Hughes M, Eshleman S, Wittchen H-U, Kendler KS (1994) Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States. Arch Gen Psychiatry 51:8–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kessler RC, Berglund P, Demler O, Jin R, Koretz D, Merikangas KR, Rush AJ, Walters EE, Wang PS (2003) The epidemiology of major depressive disorder: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). JAMA 289:3095–3105CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ministry of Health of Ukraine (2004) Indicators of substance use disorders: incidence and prevalence and activities of substance abuse treatment facilities in Ukraine in 2003. Center of Medical Statistics of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine, KievGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mokhovikov A, Donets O (1996) Suicide in the Ukraine: epidemiology, knowledge, and attitudes of the population. Crisis 17:28–34Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nemtsov A (2003) Alcohol consumption level in Russia: a viewpoint on monitoring health conditions in the Russian federation (RLMS). Addiction 98:369–370CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pakriev S, Vasar V, Aluoja A, Saarma M, Shlik J (1998a) Prevalence of mood disorders in the rural population of Udmurtia. Acta Psychiatr Scand 97:169–174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pakriev S, Vasar V, Aluoja A, Shlik J (1998b) Prevalence of ICD-10 harmful use of alcohol and alcohol dependence among the rural population in Udmurtia. Alcohol Alcohol 33:255–264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Regier DA, Hirschfeld RM, Goodwin FK, Burke JD Jr, Lazar JB, Judd LL (1988) The NIMH Depression Awareness, Recognition, and Treatment Program: structure, aims and scientific basis. Am J Psychiatry 145:1351–1357PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ríhmer Z, Szádóczky E, Füredi J, Kiss K, Papp Z (2001) Anxiety disorders comorbidity in bipolar I, bipolar II and unipolar major depression: results from a population-based study in Hungary. J Affect Disord 67:175–179CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Robins LN, Helzer JE, Croughan JL, Ratcliff KS (1981) National Institute of Mental Health Diagnostic Interview Schedule: its history, characteristics and validity. Arch Gen Psychiatry 38:381–389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Shkolnikov VM, Leon DA, Adamets S, Andreev E, Deev A (1998) Educational level and adult mortality in Russia: an analysis of routine data 1979 to 1994. Soc Sci Med 47:357–369CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Research Triangle Institute (2003) SUDAAN [computer program]. Version 8.0.2. Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle ParkGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Szádóczky E, Papp Zs, Vitrai J, Ríhmer Z, Füredi J (1998) The prevalence of major depressive and bipolar disorders in Hungary: results from a national epidemiologic survey. J Affect Disord 50:153–162CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    The ESEMeD/MHEDEA 2000 Investigators (2004) Prevalence of mental disorders in Europe: results from the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESEMeD) project. Acta Psychiatr Scand 109(Suppl 420):21–27Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    The WHO World Mental Health Survey Consortium (2004) Prevalence, severity, and unmet need for treatment of mental disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health surveys. JAMA 291:2581–2590Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Tomov T (2001) Mental health reforms in Eastern Europe. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl 401:21–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Vicente B, Kohn R, Rioseco P, Saldivia S, Baker C, Torres S (2004) Population prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Chile: 6-month and 1-month rates. Br J Psychiatry 184:299–305CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Webb CPM, Bromet EJ, Gluzman S, Tintle NL, Schwartz JE, Havenaar JM (2005) Epidemiology of heavy alcohol use in Ukraine. Alcohol Alcohol. Epub ahead of printGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Weich S, Araya R (2004) International and regional variation in the prevalence of common mental disorders: do we need more surveys? Br J Psychiatry 184:289–290CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Weissman MM, Bland RC, Canino GJ, Faravelli C, Greenwald S, Hwu HG, Joyce PR, Karam EG, Lee CK, Lellouch J, Lepine JP, Newman SC, Rubio-Stipec M, Wells JE, Wickramaratne PJ, Wittchen H, Yeh EK (1996) Cross-national epidemiology of major depression and bipolar disorder. JAMA 276:293–299CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    WHO International Consortium in Psychiatric Epidemiology (2000) Cross-national comparisons of the prevalences and correlates of mental disorders. Bull World Health Organ 78:413–426Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    World Bank (2003) Ukraine country brief (World Bank website)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Evelyn J. Bromet
    • 1
    • 2
  • Semyon F. Gluzman
    • 3
  • Volodymyr I. Paniotto
    • 4
  • Charles P. M. Webb
    • 1
  • Nathan L. Tintle
    • 1
  • Victoria Zakhozha
    • 4
  • Johan M. Havenaar
    • 5
  • Zinoviy Gutkovich
    • 6
  • Stanislav Kostyuchenko
    • 3
  • Joseph E. Schwartz
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryState University or New York Stony BrookStony BrookUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatrySUNY at Stony BrookStony BrookUSA
  3. 3.Ukrainian Psychiatric AssociationKievUkraine
  4. 4.Kiev International Institute of Sociology and National University of Kyiv–Mohyla AcademyKievUkraine
  5. 5.Department of PsychiatryFree University of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  6. 6.Department of PsychiatryNorth Shore–Long Island Jewish Health SystemNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations