The “Carers’ needs assessment for Schizophrenia”
- 374 Downloads
For the purpose of service planning, an instrument was developed for the systematic assessment of interventions needed by the caregivers of schizophrenia patients.
The development of this instrument was based on in-depth interviews and focus groups. It consists of 18 areas describing common problems of schizophrenia caregivers. For each of these problem areas several possible interventions are offered. Concurrent validity, inter-rater and retest reliability were tested among 50 caregivers.
The kappa values for the inter-rater reliability are predominantly excellent (kappa > 0.75). The values for the retest reliability show a wide range between excellent (kappa > 0.75) and fair agreement (kappa 0.40–0.60). The significant correlations found between summary scores of this new instrument and several sub-scales of the Family Problem Questionnaire support the assumption that the concurrent validity is satisfactory.
These results suggest that this instrument is both valid and reliable.
Key wordsschizophrenia caregiver needs validity reliability
This research was supported by a grant of the Jubilaeumsfond der Oesterreichischen Nationalbank (Grant No. 9001).
- 1.Schene AH, Tessler RC, Gamache GM (1994) Instruments measuring family or caregiver burden in severe mental illness. Soc Psychiatr Psychiat Epidemiol 29:228–240Google Scholar
- 2.Magliano L, Fadden G, Madianos M, de Caldas Almeida J, Held T, Marasco C, Tosini P, Maj M (1998). Burden on the families of patients with schizophrenia: results of the BIOMED-1 study. Soc Psychiatr Psychiat Epidemiol 33:405–412 Google Scholar
- 3.Magliano L, Fadden G, Economou M, Held T, Xavier M, Guarneri M, Malangone C, Marasco C, Maj M (2000) Family burden and coping strategies in schizophrenia: 1-year follow-up data from the BIOMED-1 study. Soc Psychiatr Psychiat Epidemiol 35:109–115Google Scholar
- 4.Katschnig H, Simon M, Kramer B (1994) Die Bedürfnisse von Angehörigen schizophreniekranker Patienten – Erste Ergebnisse einer Umfrage. In: Katschnig H, König P (eds) Schizophrenie und Lebensqualität. Springer, Vienna, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 5.Meijer K, Schene A, Koeter M, Knudsen HC, Becker T, Thornicroft G, Vazquez-Barquero JL, Tansella M (2004) Needs for care of patients with schizophrenia and the consequences for their informal caregivers: results from the EPSILON multi center study on schizophrenia. Soc Psychiatr Psychiat Epidemiol 39:251–258Google Scholar
- 6.Leff J, Kuipers L, Berkowitz R, Eberlein-Vries R, Sturgeon D (1982) A controlled clinical trial of intervention in families with schizophrenia patients. Brit J Psychiatry 141:121–134Google Scholar
- 7.Solomon P, Draine J, Mannion E, Meisel M (1996) Impact of brief family psychoeducation on self-efficacy. Schizophrenia Bull 22:41–50Google Scholar
- 9.Kuipers L, Leff J, Lam D (2002) Family work for schizophrenia a practical guide. Gaskell, LondonGoogle Scholar
- 10.Van Haaster I, Lesage AD, Cyr M, Toupin J (1994b) Problems and needs for care of patients suffering from severe mental illness. Soc Psychiatr Psychiat Epidemiol 29:141–148Google Scholar
- 13.Wing J, Brewin C, Thornicroft G (1992) Defining mental health needs. In: Thornicroft G, Brewin C, Wing J (eds) Measuring mental health needs. Gaskell, LondonGoogle Scholar
- 14.Kallert TW, Leisse M, Winiecki P (2004) Needs for care of chronic schizophrenic patients in long-term community treatment. Soc Psychiatr Psychiat Epidemiol 39:386–396Google Scholar
- 15.Slade M (1994) Needs assessment: involvement of staff and users will help to meet needs. Brit J Psychiatry 165:293–296Google Scholar
- 17.Brewin C, Wing J (1988) MRC Needs for Care Assessment Manual. Medical Research Council, LondonGoogle Scholar
- 18.Mac Carthy B, Lesage A, Brewin CR, Brugha TS, Mangen S, Wing JK (1989) Needs for care among the relatives of long-term users of day care. Psychol Med 19:725–736Google Scholar
- 19.Van Haaster I, Lesage AD, Cyr M, Toupin J (1994a) Further reliability and validity studies of a procedure to assess the needs for care of the chronically mentally ill. Psychol Med 24:215–222Google Scholar
- 20.Phelan M, Slade M, Thornicroft G, Dunn G, Wykes T, Strathdee G, Loftus L, McCrone P, Hayward P (1995) The Camberwell Assessment of Need: the validity and reliability of an instrument to assess the needs of people with severe mental illness. Brit J Psychiatry 167:589–595Google Scholar
- 21.Reynolds T, Thornicroft G, Abas M, Woods B, Hoe J, Leese M, Orrell M (2000) Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly (CANE). Brit J Psychiatry 174:444–452Google Scholar
- 22.Stewart D, Shamdasani P (1994) Focus groups theory and practice. Vol. 20: Applied Social Research Methods Series. Sage-Publications, Newbury ParkGoogle Scholar
- 23.Rowe G, Wright B, Bolger F (1991) Delphi: a re-evaluation of research and theory. Technol Forecast Soc Change 39:235–251Google Scholar
- 24.Feinstein AR (2002) Principles of medical statistics. Chapman & Hall/CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
- 26.McCrone P, Leese M, Thornicroft G, Schene A, Knudsen H, Vazquez-Barquero J, Lasalvia A, Padfield S, White I, Griffiths H and the EPSILON study group (2000) Reliability of the Camberwell Assessment of Need – European version. Brit J Psychiatry 177(suppl. 39):s34–s40Google Scholar
- 27.Schene AH, Koeter M, Wijngaarden B, Knudsen HC, Leese M, Ruggieri M, White IR, Vazquez-Barquero JL and the EPSILON study group (2000) Methodology of a multi-site reliability study. Brit J Psychiatry 177(suppl. 39):s15–s20Google Scholar