Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology

, Volume 39, Issue 12, pp 1017–1022

Influence of diagnostic classification on gender ratio in schizophrenia

A meta-analysis of youths hospitalized for psychosis

DOI: 10.1007/s00127-004-0844-3

Cite this article as:
Beauchamp, G. & Gagnon, A. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol (2004) 39: 1017. doi:10.1007/s00127-004-0844-3



The research literature on hospital admissions for psychoses in youths was reviewed in order to test whether there was a gender ratio discrepancy in diagnostic subgroups; the effect of the diagnostic criteria classification on this measure was also investigated.


A meta-analysis was conducted on 12 primary studies by assessing the male/female odds ratio (OR) in the schizophrenia and mood disorders with psychosis subgroups as well as the amount of variability between studies. Study inclusion criteria were: patients between the ages of 8 and 19, at least 15 patients with psychosis and a standardized diagnostic criteria classification system such as DSM, ICD or RDC.


The male/female OR measured in this meta-analysis implies that a male subject with psychosis is 1.7 times as likely to obtain a diagnosis of schizophrenia; conversely, a female subject with psychosis is 2.1 times as likely to be assigned in the mood disorders with psychosis subgroup. Disparity in diagnostic criteria nomenclature (ICD-9 vs. DSM) could account for a statistically significant difference in male/female OR for the schizophrenia subgroup in a subset of 11 studies.


Under the narrower definition of schizophrenia in studies using DSM diagnostic criteria classification, the shift towards a greater proportion of patients diagnosed with mood disorders with psychosis could be explained by the time criteria; the simultaneous emergence of the gender ratio difference is discussed. This study shows that subtle changes in diagnostic criteria in psychiatric illnesses can greatly influence observational data pertaining to youths.

Key words

ICD-9 DSM sex child adolescent odds ratio 

Copyright information

© Steinkopff Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Collège de l’OutaouaisGatineau (QC)Canada J8Y 6M5
  2. 2.Centre Hospitalier Pierre-JanetGatineau (QC)Canada

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