Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology

, Volume 39, Issue 9, pp 681–685

Persistence and change of PTSD symptomatology

A longitudinal co-twin control analysis of the Vietnam Era Twin Registry
  • Peter Roy-Byrne
  • Lester Arguelles
  • Mary Ellen Vitek
  • Jack Goldberg
  • Terry M. Keane
  • William R. True
  • Roger K. Pitman

DOI: 10.1007/s00127-004-0810-0

Cite this article as:
Roy-Byrne, P., Arguelles, L., Vitek, M.E. et al. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol (2004) 39: 681. doi:10.1007/s00127-004-0810-0



Previous twin studies have demonstrated a strong association between the degree of combat exposure and PTSD, and the continued presence of PTSD, almost two decades after combat. Independent genetic effects have also been demonstrated for both combat exposure and PTSD vulnerability in Vietnam veterans. The current study, involving a subset of male-male twin pairs discordant for service in Southeast Asia (SEA), is a follow-up to an earlier study conducted in 1987. The purpose of this study is to examine the changes in the combat exposure-PTSD relationship over an additional decade of time.


The Mississippi Scale for Combat-Related or Civilian PTSD was administered by telephone in 1997 during a follow-up survey of the Vietnam Era Twin Registry. Only twins discordant for service in Southeast Asia who originally participated in the 1987 study were included. Results of this scale and the original 1987 PTSD symptom scale were separately standardized using z-score transformations and used as dependent variables in a random effects regression model with zygosity, time and combat exposure as independent variables. Main effects and interactions were estimated to address whether there were differential effects of combat on PTSD over time, and whether there was evidence of genetic covariation between combat exposure and PTSD in 1987 that persisted to 1997.


Combat exposure was strongly associated with PTSD in both 1987 and 1997. Although still highly significant, the effect sharply diminished over time. There is little evidence for a shared genetic vulnerability between combat and PTSD in either 1987 or 1997.


This analysis documents the continuing role of combat exposure (i. e., trauma severity) on the persistence and chronicity of PTSD. Nearly 25 years after the end of hostilities, PTSD symptoms continue to be elevated in those exposed to the highest levels of combat. There is no evidence that genetic influences on exposure to combat are shared with those inducing a genetic vulnerability to PTSD. Clinicians need to be aware of the persistent and long-term residual effects of trauma exposure

Key words

PTSD genetics twins combat 

Copyright information

© Steinkopff Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter Roy-Byrne
    • 1
  • Lester Arguelles
    • 2
  • Mary Ellen Vitek
    • 3
  • Jack Goldberg
    • 4
    • 5
  • Terry M. Keane
    • 6
  • William R. True
    • 7
  • Roger K. Pitman
    • 8
  1. 1.Dept. of Psychiatry & Behavioral SciencesUniversity of WashingtonSeattle (WA)USA
  2. 2.Epidemiology-Biostatistics DivisionUniversity of Illinois-ChicagoChicagoUSA
  3. 3.VA Cooperative Studies Program Coordinating CenterHines (IL)USA
  4. 4.Dept. of EpidemiologyUniversity of WashingtonSeattle (WA)USA
  5. 5.Seattle ERIC/VET Registry (MS 152E)VAPSHCSSeattle (WA)USA
  6. 6.Psychology ServiceVAMCBoston (MA)USA
  7. 7.School of Public HealthSt. Louis University Health Sciences CenterSt. Louis (MO)USA
  8. 8.Dept. of PsychiatryMassachusetts General Hospital & Harvard Medical SchoolBoston (MA)USA

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