Supergene gold in silcrete as a vector to the Scuddles volcanic massive sulfides, Western Australia

  • Walid SalamaEmail author
  • Ravi Anand
  • Anthony Morey
  • Lucas Williams


This study reports data on the first occurrence of economic supergene Au in a near-surface silcrete horizon over the Scuddles volcanic massive sulfide (VMS) deposit in the Golden Grove district, Western Australia. A deep weathering profile was developed on dacite, rhyodacite, siltstone, and breccia that host primary Cu, Zn, and Pb sulfides with Au-Ag ore. From the base, the weathering profile at Scuddles is subdivided into five main zones: (1) supergene sulfide enrichment zone; (2) supergene oxide enrichment zone; (3) ferruginous saprolite; (4) leached zone of kaolinitic saprolite and silcrete; and (5) lateritic zone of mottled clays, ferruginous duricrust, and gravels. Silcrete at Scuddles hosts supergene Au deposit that formed in two generations: the first is intimately associated with Ag halides during supergene enrichment of the primary VMS, and the second is associated with kaolinite in dissolution cavities inside Ag halides during lateritic weathering. These two Au generations imply more than one mechanism of Au remobilization and formation, multiple fluid pathways, and superimposed episodes of weathering under variable timing and climatic conditions. Gold grains are pure, nanocrystalline (up to 10 nm) and clustered together forming microcrystalline aggregates. A few Au grains are residual in silcrete with Ag-Sb-rich cores and Ag-poor rims possibly formed during dealloying of Ag and Sb. Chemically, Au in silcrete is associated with a multi-element concentration of Ag, I, Br, Cl, Sb, Sn, Bi, Hg, Mo, W, Te, and Ge. Gold and Ag in the supergene weathering profile were mobilized to silcrete as a halide complex under acidic and saline conditions generated during the oxidation of massive sulfides at depth. The precipitation of Au-Ag halides in the silcrete may have taken place in response to a rise in pH. Gold was likely remobilized with kaolinite from the surface lateritic zone, facilitated by decays of plant roots and bioturbation. The clustered spongy, cube-octahedral, platy (six-sided), dendritic-, and reniform-like morphologies of Au in cavities inside Ag halides may indicate biogenic-related processes in its precipitation. Recognizing Au-Ag-rich silcrete over the buried VMS at Scuddles highlights the significance of the silcrete in finding buried VMS, particularly if the gossan is absent.


Golden Grove Exploration Silver halides Supergene weathering Western Australia 



The authors would like to thank the following: CSIRO Mineral Resources for the analytical facilities; Michael Verrall for the XRD and SEM analyses; Malcolm Roberts from the CMCA; the University of Western Australia for the Electron Probe microanalyses. The authors would also like to express their gratitude to Mark Van Heerden, Stefan Gawlinski, and Luke Ashford-Hodges from EMR Golden Grove., for their critical discussion and helpful comments and Simon Cornwell for helping to source appropriate samples and discuss critical aspects of the Scuddles and Gossan Hill oxide systems. Steve Hollis is also thanked for drafting Fig. 1a. CSIRO internal reviewers David Gray and Yulia Uvarova, referees, editor-in-chief Georges Beaudoin, AE Albert Gilg of Mineralium Deposita are thanked for their critical reviews of this manuscript.

Funding information

The authors would like to thank the MMG Ltd. for funding chemical analyses, logistic support during fieldwork, and providing drill hole data.

Supplementary material

126_2019_868_MOESM1_ESM.docx (461 kb)
ESM 1 A geological map of the Scuddles area, Golden Grove, Western Australia showing the main NW-SE and N-S trending strike-slip, thrust and normal faults including the Scuddles fault (in blue). (DOCX 460 kb)
126_2019_868_MOESM2_ESM.xlsx (54 kb)
ESM 2 XRF analyses of major oxides and ICP-MS analyses of trace elements of regolith, host rock units of drill holes SCRC012 and SCRC015 as well as primary sulfides. (XLSX 53 kb)
126_2019_868_MOESM3_ESM.docx (1.7 mb)
ESM 3 Typical weathering profile at the Scuddles Mine showing bedrock and the VMS deposits, supergene sulfide enrichment zone (cementation zone) dominated by chalcocite and malachite, supergene Cu-Zn-Pb sulfate, carbonate and phosphate-enriched enrichment zone, Fe oxide zone (ferruginous saprolite), leached zone of kaolinitic saprolite or silcrete, Fe-rich zone (mottled saprolite, ferruginous duricrust) and a thin transported cover of reworked gossan clasts, lateritic pisoliths and nodules. (DOCX 1693 kb)
126_2019_868_MOESM4_ESM.docx (2 mb)
ESM 4 A stratigraphic column of the weathering profile of the area surrounding the silcrete body and represented by drill hole SCRC014. A leached zone consists of 52m-thick and is represented, from the base, by 36m-thick kaolinitic saprolite, grading upward into 16m-thick silicified kaolinitic saprolite and 8m-thick mottled saprolite. The leached zone is underlain by a supergene enrichment zone (dominated by azurite), saprock, and bedrock. (DOCX 2054 kb)
126_2019_868_MOESM5_ESM.docx (279 kb)
ESM 5 Stratigraphic log versus chemical logs of drill hole SCRC012 showing the weathering profile showing beached zone consists of silcrete and silicified kaolinitic saprolite overlain by mottled zone and underlain by thin ferruginous saprolite, saprock, and bedrock. Silcrete is characterized by >90 wt.% SiO2, up to 2 wt.% TiO2 and a relatively high content of HFSE (Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, Y and U). Silcrete is also characterised by a depletion in Al2O3, Fe2O3, MnO, P2O5, K2O, Na2O, CaO, MgO, Ba, Sr, Cs, Rb, Tl and F that are elevated in silicified kaolinitic saprolite due to the presence of muscovite. (DOCX 279 kb)
126_2019_868_MOESM6_ESM.docx (461 kb)
ESM 6 Stratigraphic logs versus chemical logs showing the close association of SiO2 (>90%.wt.%) and Au in silcrete. (DOCX 460 kb)
126_2019_868_MOESM7_ESM.docx (331 kb)
ESM 7 Stratigraphic logs of regolith profile cutting across SC2 member of the Scuddles Formation versus chemical logs of drill holes SCRC004 and SCRC015 showing vertical chemical variations in major oxides (SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, K2O, TiO2, P2O5), Au, Ag, base metals (Cu, Zn and Pb) and S. The leached zone is composed of kaolinitic and silicified kaolinitic saprolite with silcrete developed. Silica is between 60-80wt.% in silicified and kaolinitic saprolite. Iron oxides, CaO, MgO, and P2O5 are depleted in silicified and kaolinitic saprolite, whereas K2O increases. Titanium and Al oxides are relatively higher in the weathering profile than in bedrock, but remain constant. Gold, Ag, Cu, Zn, Pb, and S are depleted in the silicified kaolinitic saprolite and increase in supergene sulfide enrichment zone (e.g. drill hole SCRC004) and sulfate, carbonate, and phosphate-enriched enrichment zone (e.g. SCRC015). (DOCX 330 kb)
126_2019_868_MOESM8_ESM.docx (782 kb)
ESM 8 A-C) EDX spectra of iodargyrite and “embolite”. D-I) Back-scattered imaged of a Ag halide grain (D) and Element maps showing the distribution of Ag, Au, Cl, Br and I. (DOCX 781 kb)
126_2019_868_MOESM9_ESM.xlsx (11 kb)
ESM 9 EPMA of primary Au and Ag and secondary Au from silcrete at Scuddles. Bd is below detection. (XLSX 10 kb)
126_2019_868_MOESM10_ESM.xlsx (11 kb)
ESM 10 LA ICP-MS analyses of Ag halides from silcrete at Scuddles. (XLSX 10 kb)
126_2019_868_MOESM11_ESM.docx (863 kb)
ESM 11 Backscattered electron images, EDX spectrum and semi-quantitative analysis of pyrosmalite ((Fe, Mn)8 Si6O15 (OH, Cl)10). (DOCX 862 kb)


  1. Anand RR, Butt CRM (2010) A guide for mineral exploration through the regolith in the Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. Aust J Earth Sci 57(8):1015–1114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anand R, Abdat T, Stewart A, Laird J, Pinchand T (2013) An understanding of anomaly formation through transported cover at the Bentley VMS deposit, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. CSIRO Report No: EP138612, 92ppGoogle Scholar
  3. Anand R, Lintern M, Hough R, Noble R, Verrall M, Salama W, Balkau J, Radford N (2017) The dynamics of gold in regolith change with differing environmental conditions over time. Geology 45(2):127–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Andreu E, Torro L, Proenza JA, Domenecha C, Garcia-Casco A, Villanova de Benavent C, Chavez C, Espailla J, Lewis JF (2015) Weathering profile of the Cerro de Maimon VMS deposit (Dominican Republic): textures, mineralogy, gossan evolution and mobility of Au and Ag. Ore Geol Rev 65:165–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Archibald NJ (1990) Tectonic framework of Golden Grove area Warriedar fold belt, Yalgoo Region, Western Australia: comparative structural studies, Gossan Hill and Scuddles. Port Mineral and Mining Services report, 49ppGoogle Scholar
  6. Ashley PM, Dudley RJ, Lesh RH, Marr JM, Ryall AW (1988) The Scuddles Cu-Zn prospect, an Archean volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit, Golden Grove district, Western Australia. Econ Geol 83:918–951CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bakker AW, Schippers B (1987) Microbial cyanide production in the rhizosphere in relation to potato yield reduction and Pseudomonas SPP-mediated plant growth-stimulation. Soil Biol Biochem 19:451–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barley ME (1992) A review of Archean volcanic-hosted massive sulfide and sulfate mineralization in Western Australia. Econ Geol 87(3):855–872CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barnes SJ (2006) Nickel deposits of the Yilgarn Craton: geology, geochemistry, and geophysics applied to exploration. SEG Spec publ 13: 210 pGoogle Scholar
  10. Barrie CT, Nielsen FW, Aussant C (2007) The Bisha volcanic-associated massive sulfide deposit, Western Eritrea. Econ Geol 102:717–738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barrie CT, Abdalla MA, Hamer RD (2016) Volcanogenic massive sulphide-oxide gold deposits of the Nubian Shield in Northeast Africa. In: Bouabdellah M, Slack JF (eds) Mineral deposits of North Africa. Mineral Resource Reviews. Springer International Publishing, Switzerland, pp 417–435Google Scholar
  12. Baxter JL (1982) Stratigraphy and structural setting of the Warriedar fold belt. In: Baxter JL (ed) Archaean geology of the southern Murchison: Perth. GSA, WA Div. Excursion Guide, pp 31–36Google Scholar
  13. Blewett RS, Czarnota K, Henson PA, Champion DC (2010a) Structural-event framework for the eastern Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, and its implications for orogenic gold. Precambrian Res 183:203–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Blewett RS, Henson PA, Roy IG, Champion DC, Cassidy KF (2010b) Scale-integrated architecture of a world-class gold mineral system: the Archaean eastern Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. Precambrian Res 183:230–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bowell RJ (1992) Supergene gold mineralogy at Ashanti, Ghana: implications for the supergene behavior of gold. Mineral Mag 56:545–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Boyle RW (1979) The geochemistry of Au and its deposits. Bull Geol Surv Can 280:1–584Google Scholar
  17. Boyle DR (1997) Iodargyrite as an indicator of arid climatic conditions and its association with gold-bearing glacial tills of the Chibougamau-Chapais area Quebec. Can Mineral 35:23–34Google Scholar
  18. Brugger J, Etschmann B, Grosse C, Plumridge C, Kaminski J, Paterson D, Shar SS, Ta C, Howard DI, Jonge MD, Ball AS, Reith F (2013) Can biological toxicity drive the contrasting behavior of platinum and gold in surface environments? Chem Geol 343:99–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Butt CRM (1989) Genesis of supergene gold deposits in the lateritic regolith of the Yilgarn Block, Western Australia. In: Keays RR, Ramsay WRH, Groves DI (eds) The geology of gold deposits: the perspective in 1988. Econ Geol Monograph 6. Economic Geology, New Haven, pp 460–470Google Scholar
  20. Butt CRM (1998) Supergene gold deposits. AGSO J Aust Geol Geophys 17(4):89–96Google Scholar
  21. Butt CRM (2004) Geochemical exploration for base metals in deeply weathered terrane. In: McConachy TF, McInnes BIA (eds) Recent exploration success at Golden Grove. CSIRO Western Australia, pp 81–101Google Scholar
  22. Butt CRM (2016) The development of regolith exploration geochemistry in the tropics and sub-tropics. Ore Geol Rev 73:380–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Butt CRM, Scott KM (2001) Geochemical exploration for gold and nickel in the Yilgarn craton, Western Australia-an introduction. Geochem Explor Environ Anal 1:179–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cameron EM, Leybourne MI, Palacios C (2007) Atacamite in the oxide zone of copper deposits in northern Chile: involvement of deep formation waters? Mineral Deposita 42:205–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Carr GR, Wilmshurst JR, Ryall WR (1986) Evaluation of mercury pathfinder techniques: base metal and uranium deposits. J Geochem Explor 26:1–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chivas AR, Atlhopheng JR (2010) Oxygen-isotope dating the Yilgarn regolith. In: Bishop P, Pillans B (eds) Australian landscapes. Geol Soc London Spec Publ 346: 309–320Google Scholar
  27. Clifford BA (1987) Volcanic-sedimentary facies associations hosting the volcanogenic massive sulphide mineralization at Golden Grove, Western Australia. In: Pacific Rim Cong. 87, Gold Coast, Queensland, Proc.: Parkville, Australia, Australasian Inst Mining Metallurgy pp 871–875Google Scholar
  28. Clifford BA (1992) Facies and palaeoenvironment analysis of the Archean volcanic-sedimentary succession hosting the Golden Grove Cu-Zn massive sulfide deposits, Western Australia. PhD Dissertation, Monash UniversityGoogle Scholar
  29. Cohen DR, Waite TD (2004) Interaction of aqueous Au species with goethite, smectite and kaolinite. Geochem-Explor Environ Anal 4:279–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Colin F, Vieillard P (1991) Behavior of gold in the lateritic equatorial environment: weathering and surface dispersion of residual gold particle, at Dondo Mobi, Gabon. Appl Geochem 6:279–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Colin F, Lecomte P, Boulangé B (1989) Dissolution features of gold grains in a lateritic profile at Dondo Mobi, Gabon. Geoderma 45:241–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Davy R, El-Ansary M (1986) Geochemical patterns in the laterite profile at the Boddington gold deposit, Western Australia. J Geochem Explor 26:119–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. De Oliveira SMB, Campos EG (1991) Gold-bearing iron duricrust in Central Brazil. J Geochem Explor 41:233–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. De Oliveira SMB, de Oliveira NM (2000) The morphology of gold grains associated with oxidation of sulphide-bearing quartz veins at São Bartolomeu, Central Brazil. J S Am Earth Sci 13:217–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dove PM, Rimstidt JD (1994) Silica-water interactions. In: Heaney PJ, Prewitt CT, Gibbs GV (eds) Silica: physical behavior, geochemistry, and materials applications. Mineral Soc Am, Washington, D. C, pp 259–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Erlebacher J, Aziz MJ, Karma A, Dimitrov N, Sieradzki K (2001) Evolution of nanoporosity in dealloying. Nature 410:450–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fairbrother L, Brugger J, Shapter J, Laird JS, Southam G, Reith F (2012) Supergene gold transformation: biogenic secondary and nano-particulate gold from arid Australia. Chem Geol 320-321:17–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Freyssinet P, Butt CRM (1988) Morphology and geochemistry of gold in a lateritic profile, Bardoc mine, Laverton, Western Australia, Perth, Australia. CSIRO Report MG58R, 25 pGoogle Scholar
  39. Freyssinet P, Zeegers H, Tardy Y (1989a) Morphology and geochemistry of gold grains in lateritic profiles from South Mali. J Geochem Explor 32:17–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Freyssinet P, Lecomte P, Edimo A (1989b) Dispersion of gold and base metals in the Mborguene lateritic profile, east Cameroun. In: Jenness SE (ed) Geochemical exploration 1987. J Geochem Explor 32:99–116Google Scholar
  41. Freyssinet P, Butt CRM, Morris RC, Piantone P (2005): Ore-forming processes related to lateritic weathering. In: Hedenquist JW, Thomson JFH, Goldfarb RJ, Richards JP (eds) Econ Geol. 100th Anniversary Volume. Economic Geology Publishing Company, New Haven, Connecticut, pp 681–722Google Scholar
  42. Gammons CH, Yu Y (1997) The stability of aqueous silver bromide and iodine complexes at 25-300°C. Experiments, theory and geologic applications. Chem Geol 137:155–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Gawlinski S (2004) Recent exploration success at Golden Grove, Western Australia In: McConachy TF, McInnes BIA (eds) Copper-zinc massive sulphide deposits in Western Australia. CSIRO, pp 33-37Google Scholar
  44. Gleuher L, Anand RR, Eggleton RA, Radford N (2008) Mineral hosts for gold and trace metals in regolith at Boddington deposit and Scuddles massive copper-zinc sulphide deposit Western Australia: an LA-ICP-MS study. Geochem Explor Environ Anal 8:157–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Golebiowska B, Pieczka A, Rzepa G, Matyszkiewicz J, Krajewski M (2010) Iodargyrite from Zalas (Cracow area, Poland) as an indicator of Oligocene-Miocene aridity in Central Europe. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 296:130–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gorrepati EA, Wongthahan P, Raha S, Fogler HS (2010) Silica precipitation in acidic solutions: mechanism, pH effect, and salt effect. Langmuir 26(13):10467–10474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gray DJ, Butt CRM, Lawrance LM (1992) The geochemistry of gold in lateritic environments. In: Butt CRM, Zeegers H (eds) Regolith exploration geochemistry in tropical and sub-tropical terrains. Handbook of Explor Geochcm 4. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 461–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Grimm B, Friedrich G (1990) Weathering effects on supergene gold in soils of a semiarid environment, Gentio do Ouro, Brazil. In: Noack Y, Nahon D (eds) Geochemistry of the Earth’s surface and of mineral formation. Chem Geol 84: pp 70–73Google Scholar
  49. Hingston F, Gailitis V (1976) The geographic variation of salt precipitated over Western Australia. Aust J Soil Res 14:319–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hollis SP, Yeats CJ, Wyche S, Barnes SJ, Ivanic TJ, Belford SM, Davidson GJ, Roache AJ, Wingate MTD (2015) A review of volcanic-hosted massive sulfide (VHMS) mineralization in the Archaean Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia: tectonic, stratigraphic and geochemical associations. Precambrian Res 260:113–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hough RM, Butt CRM, Reddy SM, Verrall M (2007) Gold nuggets: supergene or hypogene?. Aust J Earth Sci 54(7):959–964Google Scholar
  52. Hough RM, Noble RRP, Hitchen GJ, Hart R, Reddy SM, Saunders M, Clode P, Vaughan D, Lowe J, Gray DJ, Anand RR, Butt CRM, Verrall M (2008) Naturally occurring gold nanoparticles and nanoplates. Geology 36(7):571–574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hough RM, Noble RRP, Reich M (2009) Natural gold nanoparticles. Ore Geol Rev 42(1):55–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Karasyova ON, Ivanova LI, Lakshtanov LZ, Lovgren L, Sjoberg S (1998) Complexation of gold(III)-chloride at the surface of hematite. Aquat Geochem 4:215–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lakin HW, Curtin GC, Hubert AE, Schaklette HT, Doxtader KG (1974) Geochemistry of gold in the weathering cycle. US Geol Surv Bull 1330:88 ppGoogle Scholar
  56. Lawrance LM, Griffin BJ (1994) Crystal features of supergene gold at Hannan South, Western Australia. Mineral Deposita 29:391–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lengke MF, Southam G (2005) The effect of thiosulfate-oxidizing bacteria on the stability of the gold-thiosulfate complex. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 69:3759–3772CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lengke MF, Fleet ME, Southam G (2006a) Morphology of gold nanoparticles synthesized by filamentous cyanobacteria from gold(I)-thiosulfate and gold(III)-chloride complexes. Langmuir 22:2780–2787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lengke MF, Fleet ME, Southam G (2006b) Bioaccumulation of gold by filamentous cyanobacteria between 25 and 200°C. Geomicrobiol J 23:591–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lengke MF, Ravel B, Fleet ME, Wanger G, Gordon RA, Southam G (2006c) Mechanisms of gold bioaccumulation by filamentous cyanobacteria from gold (III)-chloride complex. Environ Sci Technol 40:6304–6309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lintern MJ (2015) The association of gold with calcrete. Ore Geol Rev 66:132–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Mann AW (1984) Mobility of gold and silver in lateritic weathering profiles: some observations from Western Australia. Econ Geol 79:38–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Martyn J (2000) Stratigraphic and lithological reference for logging core in the Golden Grove Formation and adjacent rock types: unpublished report, SydneyGoogle Scholar
  64. McAdam AC, Zolotov MY, Mironenko MV, Sharp TG (2008) Formation of silica by low-temperature acid alteration of Martian rocks: physical-chemical constraints. J Geophys Res 113.
  65. McConachy TF, McInnes BIA, Carr GR (2004) Is Western Australia intrinsically impoverished in volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits, or under explored? In: McConachy TF, McInnes BIA (eds) Copper-zinc Massive Sulphide Deposits in Western Australia. CSIRO, pp 15–32Google Scholar
  66. Millsteed PW (1998) Marshite-miersite solid solution and iodargyrite from Broken Hill, New South Wales, Australia. Miner Mag 62:471–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Murchison Zinc Company Pty Ltd (1993) Scuddles and Gossan Hill dewatering. Water disposal options. Rockwater Proprietary Ltd, report 10.4/93/2, 12pGoogle Scholar
  68. Nahon DB, Boulangé B, Colin F (1992) Metalogeny of weathering: an introduction. In: Weathering sols and paleosols. In: Martini IP, Chesworth W (eds) Developments in earth surface processes 2. Elsevier, pp 445-471Google Scholar
  69. Nickel EH (1984) The mineralogy and geochemistry of the weathering profile of the Teutonic bore Cu-Pb-Zn-Ag sulphide deposit. J Geochem Explor 22:239–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Pan Y, Fleet ME, Barnett RL, Chen Y (1993) Pyrosmalite in Canadian Precambrian sulfide deposits: mineral chemistry, petrogenesis and significance. Can Mineral 31:695–710Google Scholar
  71. Pidgeon RT, Brander, T, Lippolt, HJ (2004) Late Miocene (U+Th)– He ages of ferruginous nodules from lateritic duricrust, Darling Range, Western Australia. Aust J Earth Sci 51(6):901–909Google Scholar
  72. Porto CG, Hale M (1996) Mineralogy, morphology and chemistry of gold in stone line lateritic profile of the Posse deposit, Central Brazil. J Geochem Explor 57:115–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Ran Y, Fu J, Rate AW, Gilkes RJ (2002) Adsorption of Au(I, III) complexes on Fe, Mn oxides and humic acid. Chem Geol 185:33–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Reich M, Chryssoulis S, Palacios C (2008) Nanoscale mineralogy of Ag in sulfides from Cu deposits in northern Chile: implications for ore genesis, exploration and metallurgical recovery. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 72:A783Google Scholar
  75. Reich M, Palacios C, Alvear M, Cameron EM, Leybourne MI, Deditius A (2009) Iodine-rich waters involved in supergene enrichment of the Mantos de la Luna argentiferous copper deposit, Atacama Desert, Chile. Mineral Deposita 44:719–722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Reith F, McPhail DC (2006) Effect of resident microbiota on the solubilization of gold in soil from the Tomakin Park Gold Mine, New South Wales, Australia. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 70:1421–1438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Reith F, Rogers S, McPhail D, Webb D (2006) Biomineralization of gold: biofilms on bacterioform gold. Science 313:233–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Reith F, Lengke MF, Falconer D, Craw D, Southam G (2007) The geomicrobiology of Au: International Society for Microbial Ecology. ISME J 1:567–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Reith F, Etschmann B, Grosse C, Moors H, Benotmane MA, Monsieurs P, Grass G, Doonan C, Vogt S, Lai B, Martinez-Criado G, George GN, Nies D, Mergeay M, Pring A, Southam G, Brugger J (2009) Mechanisms of gold biomineralization in the bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans. Proc Natl Acad Sci 106:17757–17762CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Reith F, Fairbrother L, Nolze G, Wilhelm O, Clode PL, Gregg A et al (2010) Nanoparticle factories: biofilms hold the key to gold dispersion and nugget formation. Geology 38:843–846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Reith F, Stewart L, Wakelin SA (2012) Supergene gold transformation: secondary and nano-particulate gold from southern New Zealand. Chem Geol 320-321:32–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Reith F, Brugger J, Zammit CM, Nies DH, Southam G (2013) Geobiological cycling of gold: from fundamental process understanding to exploration solutions. Minerals 3:367–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Sadasivan S, Anand SJS (1979) Chlorine, bromine and iodine in monsoon rains in India. Tellus 31:290–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Salama W, Gazley MF, Bonnett LC (2016a) Geochemical exploration for supergene copper oxide deposits, Mount Isa Inlier, NW Queensland, Australia. J Geochem Explor 168:72–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Salama W, González-Álvarez I, Anand RR (2016b) Significance of weathering and regolith/landscape evolution for mineral exploration in the NE Albany-Fraser Orogen, Western Australia. Ore Geol Rev 73:500–521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Santosh M, Omana PK (1991) Very high purity gold from lateritic weathering profiles of Nilambur, southern India. Geology 19:746–749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Saunders JA (1993) Supergene oxidation of bonanza Au-Ag veins at the sleeper deposit, Nevada, USA: implications for hydrochemical exploration in the Great Basin. J Geochem Explor 47:359–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Scott KM, Ashley PM, Lawrie DC (2001) The geochemistry, mineralogy and maturity of gossans derived from volcanogenic Zn-Pb-Cu deposits of the eastern Lachlan Fold Belt, NSW, Australia. J Geochem Explor 72:169–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Sergeev NB, Zaikov VV, Laputina LP, Trofimov OV (1994) Gold and silver in the supergene zone of the pyritic lode off the Gai deposit, the southern Urals. Geol Ore Depos 36:152–164Google Scholar
  90. Sharpe R, Gemmell JB (2001) Alteration characteristics of the Archean Golden Grove Formation at the Gossan Hill deposit: induration as a focussing mechanism for mineralising hydrothermal fluids. Econ Geol 96:1239–1262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Shuster J, Southam G (2015) The in-vitro “growth” of gold grains. Geology 43:79–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Smith RE, Anand RR (1992) Mount Gibson Au deposit, Western Australia. In: Butt CRM, Zeegers H (eds) Regolith exploration geochemistry in tropical and subtropical terrains. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 313–318Google Scholar
  93. Smith AD, Hunt RJ (1985) Solubilisation of gold by Chromobacterium violaceum. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 35B:110–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Smith RE, Perdrix RL (1983) Pisolitic laterite geochemistry in the Golden Grove massive sulphide district, Western Australia. J Geochem Explor 18:131–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Smith RE, Singh B (2007) Recognizing, in lateritic cover, detritus shed from the Archaean Gossan Hill Cu-Zn-Au volcanic-hosted massive sulphide deposit, Western Australia. Geochem Explor Environ Anal 7:71–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Smith RE, Frater KM, Moeskops PG (1980) Golden Grove Cu-Zn deposit, Yilgarn block, W.A. J Geochem Explor 12:195–199Google Scholar
  97. Southam G, Lengke MF, Fairbrother L, Reith F (2009) The biogeochemistry of Au. Elements 5:303–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Taylor GF, Eggleton RA (2001) Regolith geology and geomorphology. John Wiley, New York, 375 ppGoogle Scholar
  99. Taylor G, Sylvester GC (1982) Analysis of a weathered profile on sulfide mineralization at Mugga Mugga, Western Australia. J Geochem Explor 16:105–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Taylor GF, Thornber MR (1992) Gossan and ironstone surveys. In: CRM B, Zeegers H (eds) Regolith exploration geochemistry in tropical and subtropical terrains. Handbook of exploration geochemistry 4. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 139–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Usher A, McPhail DC, Brugger JA (2009) Spectrophotometric study of aqueous Au(III) halide–hydroxide complexes at 25–80°C. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 73:3359–3380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Vaughan JP (1986) The iron end-member of the pyrosmalite series form the Pegmont lead-zinc deposit, Queensland. Min Mag 50:527–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Velasco F, Herrero JM, Suárez S, Yusta I, Alvaro A, Tornos F (2013) Supergene features and evolution of gossans capping massive sulfide deposits in the Iberian Pyrite Belt. Ore Geol Rev 53:191–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Watkins KP, Hickman AH (1990) Geological evolution and mineralization of the Murchison Province Western Australia. GSWA Bull 137:267Google Scholar
  105. Webster JG, Mann AW (1984) The influence of climate, geomorphology and primary geology on the supergene migration of gold and silver. J Geochem Explor 22:21–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Whitford DJ, Ashley PM (1992) The Scuddles volcanic-hosted massive sulfide deposit, Western Australia: geochemistry of the host rocks and evaluation of lithogeochemistry for exploration. Econ Geol 87:873–888CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Wilson AF (1984) Origin of quartz-free gold nuggets and supergene gold found in laterites and soils – a review and some new observations. Aust J Earth Sci 31:303–316Google Scholar
  108. Yeats CJ (2007) VHMS mineral systems in the Yilgarn – characteristics and exploration potential. In: Bierlein FP (ed) Proceedings of Geoconferences (WA) Inc. Kalgoorlie 07 Conference, pp 65–69Google Scholar
  109. Yesares L, Aiglsperger T, Sáez R, Almodovar GR, Nieto JM, Proenza JA, Gomez C, Escobar JM (2015a) Gold behavior in supergene profiles under changing redox conditions: the example of the Las Cruces deposit, Iberian Pyrite Belt. Econ Geol 110:2109–2126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Yesares L, Sáez R, Nieto JM, De Almodovar GR, Gomez C, Escobar JM (2015b) The Las Cruces deposit, Iberian Pyrite Belt, Spain. Ore Geol Rev 66:25–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Crown 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Walid Salama
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ravi Anand
    • 1
  • Anthony Morey
    • 2
  • Lucas Williams
    • 3
  1. 1.CSIRO Mineral ResourcesKensingtonAustralia
  2. 2.Millennium Minerals LtdBelmontAustralia
  3. 3.EMR Golden GroveGeraldtonAustralia

Personalised recommendations