Advertisement

Multiple mineralization events of the Paleozoic Tuwu porphyry copper deposit, Eastern Tianshan: evidence from geology, fluid inclusions, sulfur isotopes, and geochronology

  • Yunfeng Wang
  • Huayong Chen
  • Michael J. Baker
  • Jinsheng Han
  • Bing Xiao
  • Juntao Yang
  • Fred Jourdan
Article
  • 166 Downloads

Abstract

The Tuwu porphyry Cu deposit, located in Eastern Tianshan, NW China, is hosted by a plagiogranite porphyry and Carboniferous Qi’eshan Group volcanic rocks. Based on crosscutting relationships and mineral assemblages, hydrothermal alteration and mineralization processes at Tuwu can be divided into four stages: early propylitic alteration (stage I), porphyry mineralization (stage II), overprinting mineralization (stage III), and post-mineralization (stage IV). The porphyry mineralization stage (stage II) contributed to the majority of the Cu–Mo resource, with Cu mineralization occurring mainly as quartz-chalcopyrite veins. Stage III also produced minor Cu mineralization, characterized by chalcopyrite–anhydrite–chlorite–calcite assemblages. Fluid inclusion (FI) study reveals that stage II is characterized by a high-temperature, high-salinity, highly oxidized, and K-rich H2O–NaCl–CaCl2 fluid. Fluid boiling and mixing likely occurred during the porphyry mineralization stage, leading to the precipitation of chalcopyrite and pyrite. Alteration and mineralization in stage III were derived from a S-rich H2O–NaCl–CaCl fluid, with fluid boiling leading to the precipitation of chalcopyrite. The δ34S values of chalcopyrite from stages II and III are − 0.8–0.6 ‰ and 1.1–1.3 ‰, respectively, suggesting magmatic sources for the ore-forming components of both stages. 40Ar/39Ar dating indicates that stage II likely occurred at 328.1 ± 1.4 Ma, around the age emplacement of the causative plagiogranite porphyry (ca. 337.7–330.3 Ma). We suggest the overprinting mineralization event occurred at ca. 323 Ma, spatially and genetically related to the emplacement of the quartz albite porphyry at 323.6 ± 2.5 Ma.

Graphical abstract

Keywords

Tuwu porphyry Cu deposit Eastern Tianshan Overprinting mineralization Fluid inclusions S isotope Ar–Ar dating 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We gratefully acknowledge Dengfeng Li, Weifeng Zhang, Liandang Zhao, Wanjian Lu for providing assistance undertaking field work. We also thank the technical support of Niu Hecai for assistance during fluid inclusion microthermometry. This is contribution no. IS–2592 from GIGCAS.

Funding information

This study was financially supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China Program (U1603244), and Strategic Priority Research Program (B) of Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDB1803206).

Supplementary material

126_2018_859_MOESM1_ESM.docx (18 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 18 kb)
126_2018_859_MOESM2_ESM.docx (21 kb)
ESM 2 (DOCX 20 kb)
126_2018_859_MOESM3_ESM.docx (19 kb)
ESM 3 (DOCX 18 kb)
126_2018_859_MOESM4_ESM.docx (18 kb)
ESM 4 (DOCX 18 kb)

References

  1. Allen MB, Windley BF, Zhang C (1993) Palaeozoic collisional tectonics and magmatism of the Chinese Tien Shan, central Asia. Tectonophysics 220:89–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Audétat A, Günther D (1999) Mobility and H2O loss from fluid inclusions in natural quartz crystals. Contrib Mineral Petrol 137:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Audétat A, Pettke T, Heinrich CA, Bodnar RJ (2008) The composition of magmatic-hydrothermal fluids in barren and mineralized intrusions. Econ Geol 103:877–908CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ballard JR, Michael-Palin J, Williams IS, Campbell IH, Faunes A (2001) Two ages of porphyry intrusion resolved for the super-giant Chuquicamata copper deposit of northern Chile by ELA-ICP-MS and SHRIMP. Geology 29:383–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Becker SP, Fall A, Bodnar RJ (2008) Synthetic fluid inclusions. XVII. PVTX properties of high-salinity H2O-NaCl solution (>30 wt% NaCl): application to fluid inclusions that homogenize by halite disappearance from porphyry copper and other hydrothermal ore deposits. Econ Geol 103:539–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. BGMRXUAR (Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region) (1993) Regional geology of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Geological Publishing House, Beijing, pp 1–841 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  7. Bodnar RJ (1983) A method of calculating fluid inclusion volumes based on vapor bubble diameters and PVTX properties of inclusion fluid. Econ Geol 78:535–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bodnar RJ (1994) Synthetic fluid inclusions: XII. The system H2O–NaCl. Experimental determination of the halite liquidus and isochores for a 40 wt. % NaCl solution. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 58:1053–1063CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bouzari F, Clark AH (2006) Prograde evolution and geothermal affinities of a major porphyry copper deposit: the Cerro Colorado hypogene protore, I Región, Northern Chile. Econ Geol 101:95–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bowman JR, Parry WT, Kropp WP, Kruer SA (1987) Chemical and isotopic evolution of hydrothermal solutions at Bingham, Utah. Econ Geol 82:395–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Braxton DP, Cooke DR, Dunlap J, Norman M, Reiners P, Stein H, Waters P (2012) From crucible to graben in 2.3 Ma: a high-resolution geochronological study of porphyry life cycles, Boyongan-Bayugo copper-gold deposits, Philippines. Geology 40:471–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Calagari AA (2003) Stable isotope (S, O, H and C) studies of the phyllic and potassic-phyllic alteration zones of the porphyry copper deposit at Sungun, east Azarbaidjan, Iran. J Asian Earth Sci 21:767–780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cao FG, Tu QJ, Zhang XM, Ren Y, Li SL, Dong FR (2006) Preliminary determination of the Early Paleozoic magmatic arc in the Karlik Mountains, East Tianshan, Xinjiang, China —Evidence from zircon SHRIMP U-Pb dating of granite bodies in the Tashuihe area. Geological Bulletin of China 25:923–927 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  14. Carroll AR, Graham SA, Hendrix MS, Ying D, Zhou D (1995) Late Paleozoic tectonic amalgamation of northwestern China: sedimentary record of the northern Tarim, northwestern Turpan, and southern Junggar basins. Geol Soc Am Bull 107:571–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cathles LM (1977) An analysis of the cooling of intrusives by ground-water convection which includes boiling. Econ Geol 72:804–826CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chang J, Li JW, Audétat A (2018) Formation and evolution of multistage magmatic-hydrothermal fluids at the Yulong porphyry Cu-Mo deposit, eastern Tibet: Insights from LA-ICP-MS analysis of fluid inclusions. Econ Geol 232:181–205Google Scholar
  17. Chen FW, Li HQ, Chen YC, Wang DH, Wang JL, Liu DQ, Tang YL, Zhou RH (2005) Zircon SHRIMP U–Pb dating and its geological significance of mineralization in Tuwu–Yandong porphyry copper mine, East Tianshan Mountain. Acta Geol Sin 79:247–254 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  18. Chen YJ, Pirajno F, Wu G, Qi JP, Xiong XL (2012) Epithermal deposits in North Xinjiang, NW China. Int J Earth Sci 101:889–917CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Collins LF (1979) Gas hydrates in CO2-bearing fluid inclusions and the use of freezing data for estimation of salinity. Econ Geol 74:1435–1444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cooke DR, Hollings P, Walshe JL (2005) Giant porphyry deposits: characteristics, distribution, and tectonic controls. Econ Geol 100:801–818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Deng YF, Song XY, Chen LM, Zhou TF, Pirajno F, Feng Y, Xie W, Zhang DY (2014) Geochemistry of the Huangshandong Ni–Cu deposit in northwestern China: implications for the formation of magmatic sulfide mineralization in orogenic belts. Ore Geol Rev 56:181–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Deyell CL (2005) Sulfur isotope zonation at the Mt Polley alkalic porphyry Cu-Au deposit, British Columbia, Canada. Mineral Deposit Research: Meeting the Global Challenge. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp 373–376Google Scholar
  23. Dong LL, Wan B, Yang WZ, Deng C, Chen ZY, Yang L, Cai KD, Xiao WJ (2018) Rb-Sr geochronology of single gold-bearing pyrite grains from the Katbasu gold deposit in the South Tianshan, China and its geolocical significance. Ore Geol Rev 100:99–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Field CW, Gustafson LB (2008) Sulfur isotopes in the porphyry copper deposit at El Salvador, Chile. Econ Geol 71:1533–1548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Field CW, Zhang L, Dilles JH, Rye RO, Reed MH (2005) Sulfur and oxygen isotopic record in sulfate and sulfide minerals of early, deep, pre-main stage porphyry Cu-Mo and late main stage base-metal mineral deposits, Butte district, Montana. Chem Geol 215:61–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fournier RO (1999) Hydrothermal processes related to movement of fluid from plastic into brittle rock in the magmatic-epithermal environment. Econ Geol 94:1193–1211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gao JF, Zhou MF, Qi L, Chen W, Huang XW (2015) Chalcophile elemental compositions and origin of the Tuwu porphyry Cu deposit, NW China. Ore Geol Rev 66:403–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Guo QQ, Pan CZ, Xiao WJ, Qu JF, Ao SJ, Zhang JE, Song DF, Tian ZH, Wan B, Han CM (2010) Geological and geochemical characteristics of the Yandong porphyry copper deposits in Hami, Xinjiang. Xinjiang Geol 28:419–426 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  29. Han CM, Xiao WJ, Zhao GC, Mao JW (2006a) Geological characteristics and genesis of the Tuwu porphyry copper deposit, Hami, Xinjiang, Central Asia. Ore Geol Rev 28:308–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Han CM, Xiao WJ, Zhao GC, Mao JW, Li SZ, Yan Z, Mao QG (2006b) Major types, characteristics and geodynamic mechanism of Upper Paleozoic copper deposits in northern Xinjiang, north western China. Ore Geol Rev 28:308–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Han CM, Xiao WJ, Zhao GC, Ao SJ, Zhang J, Qu WJ, Du AD (2010) In-situ U–Pb, Hf and Re–Os isotopic analyses of the Xiangshan Ni–Cu–Co deposit in Eastern Tianshan (Xinjiang), Central Asia Orogenic Belt: constraints on the timing and genesis of the mineralization. Lithos 120:547–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Heinrich CA (2005) The physical and chemical evolution of low-salinity magmatic fluids at the porphyry to epithermal transition: a thermodynamic study. Mineral Deposita 39:864–889CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hou ZQ, Zeng PS, Gao YF, Du AD, Fu DM (2006) Himalayan Cu–Mo–Au mineralization in the eastern Indo–Asian collision zone: constraints from Re–Os dating of molybdenite. Mineral Deposita 41:33–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hou T, Zhang ZC, Santosh M, Encarnacion J, Zhu J, Luo WJ (2014) Geochronology and geochemistry of submarine volcanic rocks in the Yamansu iron deposit, Eastern Tianshan Mountains, NW China: constraints on the metallogenesis. Ore Geol Rev 56:487–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hua LB (2001) Element geochemistry subarea and ore-finding direction of metallogenic district, Yamansu-Shaquanzi, eastern Tianshan, Xinjiang. Journ of Guilin Institute of Technology 21:99–105 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  36. Huang XW, Qi L, Gao JF, Zhou MF (2012) First reliable Re-Os ages of pyrite and stable isotope compositions of Fe(-Cu) deposits in the Hami region, Eastern Tianshan Orogenic Belt, NW China. Resour Geol 63:166–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jourdan F, Renne PR (2007) Age calibration of the fish canyon sanidine 40Ar/39Ar dating standard using primary K–Ar standards. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 71:387–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Klemm LM, Pettke T, Heinrich CA, Campos E (2007) Hydrothermal evolution of the El Teniente deposit, Chile: porphyry Cu–Mo ore deposition from low-salinity magmatic fluids. Econ Geol 102:1021–1045CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Li ZM, Zhao RF, Hou RP, Wang QM (2006) Geological characteristics of Tuwu-Yandong copper deposit in Xinjiang. Geology Prospec 42:1–4 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  40. Li N, Chen YJ, Ulrich T, Lai Y (2012) Fluid inclusion study of the Wunugetu Cu–Mo deposit, Inner Mongolia, China. Mineral Deposita 47:467–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Li HM, Ding JH, Li LX, Yao T (2014) The genesis of the skarn and the genetic type of the Yamansu Iron deposit, Eastern Tianshan, Xinjiang. Acta Geol Sin 88:2477–2489 (in Chinese with English abstracts)Google Scholar
  42. Li DF, Chen HY, Zhang L, Pete H, Chen YJ, Lu WJ, Zheng Y, Wang CM, Fang J, Chen G, Zhou G (2016) Ore geology and fluid evolution of the giant Caixiashan carbonate-hosted Zn–Pb deposit in the Eastern Tianshan, NW China. Ore Geol Rev 72:355–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Liang HY, Sun WD, Su WC, Zartman RE (2009a) Porphyry copper-gold mineralization at Yulong, China, promoted by decreasing redox potential during magnetite alteration. Econ Geol 104:587–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Liang W, Yang Z, Zheng YC (2009b) The Zhaxikang Pb–ZnP deposit: Ar–Ar age of sericite and its metallogenic significance. Acta Geol Sin 89:560–568Google Scholar
  45. Liu M, Wang ZL, Zhang ZH, Chen WS, Yang D (2009) Fluid inclusion geochemistry of Tuwu porphyry copper deposit, eastern Tianshan in Xinjiang. Acta Petrol Sin 25:1446–1455 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  46. Ma XH, Chen B, Wang C, Yan XL (2015) Early Paleozoic subduction of the Paleo-Asian Ocean: Zircon U-Pb geochronological, geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic evidence from the Harlik pluton, Xinjiang. Acta Petrologica Sinica 31:89–104 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  47. Mao JW, Goldfarb RT, Wang YT, Hart CJ, Wang ZL, Yang JM (2005) Late Paleozoic base and precious metal deposits, east Tianshan, Xinjiang, China: characteristics and geodynamic setting. Episodes 28:1–14Google Scholar
  48. Mao JW, Franco P, Zhang ZH, Chai FM, Wu H, Chen SP, Cheng SL, Yang JM, Zhang CQ (2008) A review of the Cu–Ni sulphide deposits in the Chinese Tianshan and Altay orogens (Xinjiang Autonomous Region, NW China): principal characteristics and ore-forming processes. J Asian Earth Sci 32:184–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Masterman GJ, Cooke DR, Berry RF, Clark AH, Archibald DA, Mathur R, Walshe JL, Duran M (2004) 40Ar/39Ar and Re-Os geochronology of porphyry copper-molybdenum deposits and related copper-silver veins in the Collahuasi district, Northern Chile. Econ Geol 99:673–690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Meng QR (2003) What drove late Mesozoic extension of the northern China-Mongolia tract? Tectonophysics 369:155–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Merle R, Jourdan F, Marzoli A, Renne P, Grange M, Girardeau J (2009) Evidence of multi-phase cretaceous to quaternary alkaline magmatism on Tore-Madeira rise and neighboring seamounts from 40Ar/39Ar ages. J Geol Soc 166:879–894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. NGPXBGME (No. 1 Geological Party, Xinjiang Bureau of Geology and Mineral Exploration) (2011) Prospecting report of Tuwu Cu deposit. Hami, Xinjiang, pp 1–253 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  53. Ohmoto H, Goldhaber MB (1997) Sulfur and carbon isotopes. In: Barnes HL (ed) Geochemistry of hydrothermal ore deposits, third edn. John Wiley and Sons, NewYork, pp 517–611Google Scholar
  54. Pan HD, Shen P, Chen G, Yang JT, Zhao YJ, Dai HW (2013) Volcanic-plutonic complex, ore-forming rocks and their alterations in Tuwu porphyry Cu deposit of Xinjiang. Mineral Deposits 32:794–808 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  55. Parsapoor A, Dilles JH, Khalili M, Mackizadeh MA, Maghami M (2014) Stable isotope record of hydrothermal sulfate, sulfide and silicate minerals in the Darreh-Zar porphyry copper deposit in Kerman, southeastern Iran: implications for petrogenesis and exploration. J Geochem Explor 143:103–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Pirajno F, Seltmann R, Yang YQ (2011) A review of mineral systems and associated tectonic settings of northern Xinjiang, NW China. Geosci Front 2:157–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Prokofiev VY, Garofalo PS, Bortnikov NS, Kovalenker VA (2010) Fluid inclusion constraints on the genesis of gold in the Darasun District (Eastern Transbaikalia), Russia. Econ Geol 105:395–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Qin KZ, Fang TH, Wang SL, Zhu BQ, Feng YM, Yu HF, Xiu QY (2002) Plate tectonic division, evolution and metallogenic settings in eastern Tianshan Mountains: NW–China Xinjiang. Geol J 20:302–308 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  59. Quadt A, Erni M, Martinek K, Moll M, Peytcheva I, Heinrich CA (2011) Zircon crystallization and the lifetimes of ore-forming magmatic-hydrothermal systems. Geology 39:731–734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Redmond PB, Einaudi MT, Inan EE, Landtwing MR, Heinrich CA (2004) Copper deposition by fluid cooling in intrusion-centered systems: new insights from the Bingham porphyry ore deposit, Utah. Geology 32:217–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Roedder E, Bodnar RJ (1980) Geologic pressure determinations from fluid inclusion studies. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 8:263–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Roedder E, Ribbe PH (1984) Fluid inclusions. Rev Mineral 12:644–645Google Scholar
  63. Rui ZY, Liu YL, Wang LS, Wang YT (2002a) The eastern Tianshan porphyry copper belt in Xinjiang and its tectonic framework. Acta Geol Sin 76:83–94 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  64. Rui ZY, Wang LS, Wang YT, Liu YL (2002b) Discussion on metallogenic epoch of Tuwu-Yandong porphyry copper deposits in Eastern Tianshan mountains, Xinjiang. Mineral Deposita 21:16–22 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  65. Rusk BG, Reed M, Dilles JH (2008) Fluid inclusion evidence for magmatic-hydrothermal fluid evolution in the porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit at Butte, Montana. Econ Geol 103:307–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Sengör A, Natal’in B, Burtman V (1993) Evolution of the Altaid tectonic collage and Paleozoic crustal growth in Eurasia. Nature 364:299–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Seo JH, Heinrich CA (2013) Selective copper diffusion into quartz-hosted vapor inclusions: evidence from other host minerals, driving forces, and consequences for Cu–Au ore formation. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 113:60–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Sevari BA, Hezarkhani A (2014) Hydrothermal evolution of Darrehzar porphyry copper deposit, Iran: evidence from fluid inclusions. Arab J Geosci 7:1463–1477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Shen P, Pan HD, Dong LH (2014a) Yandong porphyry Cu deposit, Xinjiang, China-geology, geochemistry and SIMS U–Pb zircon geochronology of host porphyries and associated alteration and mineralization. J Asian Earth Sci 80:197–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Shen P, Pan HD, Zhou TF, Wang JB (2014b) Petrography, geochemistry and geochronology of the host porphyries and associated alteration at the Tuwu Cu deposit, by reaction with mafic hostrock? Mineral Deposita 49:709–731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Siahcheshm K, Calagari AA, Abedini A (2013) Hydrothermal evolution in the Maher-Abad porphyry Cu-Au deposit SW Birjand, Eastern Iran: evidence from fluid inclusions. Ore Geol Rev 58:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Sillitoe RH (1988) Epochs of intrusion-related copper mineralization in the Andes. J S Am Earth Sci 1:89–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sillitoe RH (2005) Supergene oxidized and enriched porphyry copper and related deposits. In: Hedenquist JW, Thompson JFH, Goldfarb RJ, Richards JP (eds) Economic Geology 100TH Anniversary Volume. Society of Economic Geologists, Littleton, pp 723–768Google Scholar
  74. Sillitoe RH (2010) Porphyry copper systems. Econ Geol 105:3–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Sun WD, Huang RF, Li H, Hu YB, Zhang CC, Sun SJ, Zhang LP, Ding X, Li CY, Zartman RE, Ling MX (2015) Porphyry deposits and oxidized magmas. Ore Geol Rev 65:97–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Ulrich T, Günther D, Heinrich CA (2002) The evolution of a porphyry cu-au deposit, based on la-icp-ms analysis of fluid inclusions: Bajo de la Alumbrera, Argentina. Econ Geol 97:1889–1920CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Wan B, Xiao WJ, Han CM, Windley BF, Zhang LC, Qu WJ, Du AD (2014) Re–Os molybdenite age of the Cu-Mo skarn ore deposit at Suoerkuduke in East Junggar, NW China and its geological significance. Ore Geol Rev 56:541–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Wan B, Xiao WJ, Windley BF, Gao J, Zhang LC, Cai KD (2017) Contrasting ore styles and their role in understanding the evolution of the Altaids. Ore Geol Rev 80:910–922CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Wang FT, Feng J, Hu JW, Wang L, Jiang LF, Zhang Z (2001) Characteristics and significance of the Tuwu porphyry copper deposit, Xinjiang. Geol China 28:36–39 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  80. Wang ZL, Mao JW, Zhang ZH, Zuo GC, Wang LS (2006) Geology, time-space distribution and metallogenic geodynamic evolution of porphyry copper (molybdenum) deposits in the Tianshan Mountains. Acta Geol Sin 80:943–955 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  81. Wang YH, Xue CJ, Liu JJ, Wang JP, Yang JT, Zhang FF, Zhao ZN, Zhao YJ (2014) Geochemistry, geochronology, Hf isotope, and geological significance of the Tuwu porphyry copper deposit in Tianshan, Xinjiang. Acta Petrol Sin 30:3383–3399 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  82. Wang YH, Xue CJ, Wang JP, Peng RM, Yang JT, Zhang FF, Zhao ZN, Zhao YJ (2015a) Petrogenesis of magmatism in the Yandong region of Eastern Tianshan, Xinjiang: geochemical, geochronological and Hf isotope constraints. Int Geol Rev 57:1130–1151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Wang YH, Xue CJ, Liu JJ, Wang JP, Yang JT, Zhang FF, Zhao ZN, Zhao YJ, Liu B (2015b) Early carboniferous adakitic rocks in the area of the Tuwu deposit, eastern Tianshan, NW China: slab melting and implications for porphyry copper mineralization. J Asian Earth Sci 103:332–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Wang YF, Chen HY, Xiao B, Han JS, Yang JT (2016) Porphyritic-overlapped mineralization of the Tuwu and Yandong copper deposits in eastern Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang. Mineral Deposits 35:51–68 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  85. Wang YH, Zhang FF, Liu JJ, Que CY (2016a) Genesis of the Fuxing porphyry cu deposit in Eastern Tianshan, China: evidence from fluid inclusions and C-H-O-S-Pb isotope systematics. Ore Geol Rev 79:46–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Wang YH, Zhang FF, Liu JJ, Que CY (2016b) Carboniferous magmatism and mineralization in the area of the Fuxing Cu deposit, Eastern Tianshan, China: evidence from zircon U-Pb ages, petrogeochemistry, and Sr-Nd-Hf-O isotopic compositions. Gondwana Res 34:109–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Wang YH, Zhang FF, Li B-C (2017) Genesis of the Yandong porphyry Cu deposit in eastern Tianshan, NW China: evidence from geology, fluid inclusions and isotope systematics. Ore Geol Rev 86:280–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Wang YF, Chen HY, Xiao B, Han JS, Fang J, Yang JT (2018) Overpinting mineralization in the Paleozoic Yandong porphyry copper deposit, eastern Tianshan, NW China―evidence from geology, fluid inclusion and geochronology. Ore Geol Rev 100:148–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Wu FY, Sun DY, Ge WC, Zhang YB, Grant ML, Wilde SA, Jahn BM (2011) Geochronology of the Phanerozoic granitoids in northeastern China. J Asian Earth Sci 41:1–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Xiao WJ, Windley B, Hao J, Zhai MG (2003) Accretion leading to collision and the Permian Solonker suture, Inner Mongolia, China: termination of the central Asian orogenic belt. Tectonics 22:1069–1088CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Xiao QH, Qin KZ, Xu YX, San JZ, Ma ZL, Sun H, Tang DM (2009) A discussion on geological characteristics of Hongxingshan Pb-Zn (Ag) deposit in Central Tianshan massif, eastern Xinjiang, with reference to regional metallogenesis. Mineral Deposits 28:120–132Google Scholar
  92. Xiao WJ, Windley BE, Allen MB, Han CM (2013) Paleozoic multiple accretionary and collisional tectonics of the Chinese Tianshan orogenic collage. Gondwana Res 23:1316–1341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Xiao B, Chen HY, Pete H, Han JS, Wang YF, Yang JT, Cai KD (2017) Magmatic evolution of the Tuwu-Yandong porphyry Cu belt, NW China: Constraints from geochronology, geochemistry and Sr–Nd–Hf isotopes. Gond Res 43:74–91Google Scholar
  94. Xu B, Charvet J, Chen Y, Zhao P, Shi G (2012) Middle Paleozoic convergent orogenic belts in western Inner Mongolia (China): framework, kinematics, geochronology and implications for tectonic evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Gondwana Res 23:1342–1364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Yang ZM, Hou ZQ, White NC, Chang ZS, Li ZQ, Song YC (2009) Geology of the post-collisional porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit at Qulong. Tibet Ore Geol Rev 36:133–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Yang FQ, Liu GR, Qin JH, Zhang ZX, Liu ZJ, Zhang LW, Wei GZ, Liu F, Geng XX (2012) Fluid inclusion and stable isotope study of Yulekenhalasu copper-(molybdenum) deposit in northern margin of Junggar, Xinjiang. Mineral Deposits 31:965–982Google Scholar
  97. Zang YS (2014) Geological characteristics and tectonic evolution of Yuhai porphyry copper deposit in Eastern Tianshan. Master’s Thesis, Chang’an University, p 62 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  98. Zhang LC, Qin KZ, Ying JF, Xia B, Shu JS (2004a) The relationship between ore-forming processes and adakitic rock in Tuwu-Yandong porphyry copper metallogenic belt, eastern Tianshan Mountains. Acta Petrol Sin 20:259–268 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  99. Zhang LC, Xiao WJ, Qin KZ, Ji JS, Yang XK (2004b) Types, geological features and geodynamic significances of gold-copper deposits in the Kanggurtag metallogenic belt, eastern Tianshan, NW China. Int J Earth Sci 93:224–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Zhang LC, Qin KZ, Xiao WJ (2008) Multiple mineralization events in the eastern Tianshan district NW China: Isotopic geochronology and geological significance. J Asian Earth Sci 32:236–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Zhang ZX, Yang FQ, Yan SH, Zhang R, Chai FM, Liu F, Geng XX (2010) Sources of ore-forming fluids and materials of the Baogutu porphyry copper deposit in Xinjiang constraints from sulfur-hydrogen-oxygen isotopes geochemistry. Acta Petrol Sin 26:707–716 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  102. Zhang DY, Zhou TF, Yuan F, Fiorentini ML, Said N, Lu YJ, Pirajno F (2013) Geochemical and isotopic constraints on the genesis of the Jueluotage native copper mineralized basalt, Eastern Tianshan, Northwest China. J Asian Earth Sci 73:317–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Zhang FF, Wang YH, Liu JJ, Wang JP (2015) Zircon U–Pb and molybdenite Re–Os geochronology, Hf isotope analyses, and whole-rock geochemistry of the Donggebi Mo deposit, Eastern Tianshan, Northwest China, and their geological significance. Int Geol Rev 57:446–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Zhang FF, Wang YH, Liu JJ (2016) Petrogenesis of late carboniferous granitoids in the Chihu area of Eastern Tianshan, NW China, and tectonic implications: geochronological, geochemical, and zircon Hf–O isotopic constraints. Int Geol Rev 58:949–966CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Zhong J, Chen YJ, Pirajno F, Chen J, Li J, Qi JP, Li N (2014) Geology, geochronology, fluid inclusion and H–O isotope geochemistry of the Luoboling Porphyry Cu–Mo deposit, Zijinshan Orefield, Fujian Province, China. Ore Geol Rev 57:61–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Zhou TF, Yuan F, Zhang DY, Fan Y, Liu S, Peng MX, Zhang JD (2010) Geochronology, tectonic setting and mineralization of granitoids in Jueluotage area, eastern Tianshan Xinjiang. Acta Petrol Sin 26:478–502 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Mineralogy and Metallogeny, Guangzhou Institute of GeochemistryChinese Academy of SciencesGuangzhouChina
  2. 2.Institute of GeologyChinese Academy of Geological SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Mineral Physics and MaterialsGuangzhouChina
  4. 4.ARC Research Hub for Transforming the Mining Value Chain, CODESUniversity of TasmaniaHobartAustralia
  5. 5.No.1 geological party, Xinjiang Bureau of Geology and Mineral ExplorationChangjiChina
  6. 6.Western Australian Argon Isotope Facility, Department of Applied Geology & JdL-CMSCurtin UniversityPerthAustralia

Personalised recommendations