Advertisement

Mineralium Deposita

, Volume 53, Issue 6, pp 757–774 | Cite as

Pt-Os isotopic constraints on the age of hydrothermal overprinting on the Jinchuan Ni-Cu-PGE deposit, China

  • Shenghong Yang
  • Gang Yang
  • Wenjun Qu
  • Andao Du
  • Eero Hanski
  • Yann Lahaye
  • Jiangfeng Chen
Article
  • 242 Downloads

Abstract

Platinum group element (PGE) mineralization occurs associated with mafic-ultramafic rocks in different environments. Although the PGE enrichment is primarily caused by magmatic processes, remobilization of Pd and Pt by hydrothermal fluids has likely been an important mechanism in increasing the precious metal grade in many cases. However, the timing of PGE enrichment by hydrothermal fluid processes is commonly difficult to constrain. The Jinchuan ultramafic intrusion in Northwest China is ranked the world’s third largest magmatic Ni-Cu sulfide deposit. Besides the main ore body consisting of net-textured and disseminated sulfides, there is hydrothermal mineralization associated with sheared contact zones of the intrusion, which shows elevated Cu and Pt concentrations. The unusually high Pt is hosted mainly in sperrylite within altered silicates. In this study, we applied the Pt-Os geochronometer to a Cu-Pt-rich ore body, yielding an isochron age of 436 ± 23 Ma. This age is significantly younger than the main ore formation age of ca. 825 Ma, but similar to that of the continental collision event between the Qaidam-Qilian Block and Alax Block of North China. This indicates that the intrusion may have been uplifted during the Paleozoic orogenic processes from deeper crust, resulting in the generation of the Cu-Pt-rich hydrothermal ore body. Our new data provide the first strong age constraints on the hydrothermal PGE enrichment, showing that the Pt-Os isotope system is potentially a powerful tool for dating hydrothermal overprinting on Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide deposits.

Keywords

Pt-Os dating Jinchuan Ni-Cu-PGE deposit Hydrothermal overprinting Orogenic uplift 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to Tongyou Liu, Fugui Qiao, Jiapu Jiang, Lizhong Xiao, and Rongqi Sun of the Jinchuan Nonferrous Metal Cooperation for their assistance with the fieldwork. We thank Yulong Tian and Yalin Gao of the Jinchuan Nonferrous Metal Cooperation, Zongli Tang and Jiangang Jiao of the Chang’an University, and Li Chusi of the Indiana University for enlightening the discussions. We thank Wang Ruiting of the Northwest Mining and Geology Group Cooperation Limited for providing two samples. We are grateful to Fagang Zeng and Li Li for their assistance in the chemistry related to Pt, Os, Cu, and Ni analyses and to Fengjiao Li for the assistance in the sample preparation for N-TIMS measurements. Holly Stein and Laurie Reisberg are thanked for their constructive and helpful reviews. Wolfgang Maier and Bernd Lehmann are thanked for efficient handling. Fangfang Guo is thanked for helpful suggestions.

Funding information

This work is supported by the NSFC (grant nos. 40373010, 40534020, and 40972070), the Academy of Finland (nos. 276614 and 281859), and the Renlund Foundation.

References

  1. Andersen JCQ, Thalhammer OAR (2006) Platinum-group element and Re-Os isotope variations of the high-grade Kilvenjärvi platinum-group element deposit, Portimo Layered Igneous Complex, Finland. Econ Geol 101(1):159–177.  https://doi.org/10.2113/gsecongeo.101.1.159 Google Scholar
  2. Barnes SJ, Liu W (2012) Pt and Pd mobility in hydrothermal fluids: evidence from komatiites and from thermodynamic modelling. Ore Geol Rev 44:49–58Google Scholar
  3. Barnes SJ, Tang ZL (1999) Chrome spinel from the Jinchuan Ni-Cu sulfide deposit, Gansu Province, People’s Republic of China. Econ Geol 94(3):343–356.  https://doi.org/10.2113/gsecongeo.94.3.343 Google Scholar
  4. Barnes S-J, Makovicky E, Makovicky M, Rose-Hansen J, Karupmoller S (1997) Partition coefficients for Ni, Cu, Pd, Pt, Rh, and Ir between monosulfide solid solution and sulfide liquid and the formation of compositionally zoned Ni–Cu sulfide bodies by fractional crystallization of sulfide liquid. Can J Earth Sci 34:366–374Google Scholar
  5. Begemann F, Ludwig KR, Lugmair GW, Min K, Nyquist LE, Patchett PJ, Renne PR, Shih CY, Villa IM, Walker RJ (2001) Call for an improved set of decay constants for geochronological use. Geochim Cosmochi Acta 65:111–121Google Scholar
  6. Boudreau AE, Mathez EA, Mccallum IS (1986) Halogen geochemistry of the Stillwater and Bushveld complexes: evidence for transport of the platinum-group elements by Cl-rich fluids. J Petrol 27(4):967–986.  https://doi.org/10.1093/petrology/27.4.967 Google Scholar
  7. Brandon AD, Norman MD, Walker RJ, Morgan JW (1999) 186Os–187Os systematics of Hawaiian picrites. Earth Planet Sci Lett 174:25–42Google Scholar
  8. Brandon AD, Norman MD, Walker RJ (2005) The debate over core–mantle interaction. Earth Planet Sci Lett 232(3-4):211–225.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2005.01.034 Google Scholar
  9. Brandon AD, Walker RJ, Puchtel IS (2006) Platinum osmium isotope evolution of the Earth’s mantle: constraints from chondrites and Os-rich alloys. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 70:2093–2103Google Scholar
  10. Bursztyn NE, Olivo GB (2010) PGE-rich Ni-Cu sulfide mineralization in the Flin Flon greenstone belt, Manitoba, Canada: implications for hydrothermal remobilization of platinum group elements in basic-ultrabasic sequences. Econ Geol 105:1469–1490Google Scholar
  11. Cao Y, Song SG, Niu YL, Jung H, Jin ZM (2011) Variation of mineral composition, fabric and oxygen fugacity from massive to foliated eclogites during exhumation of subducted ocean crust in the North Qilian suture zone, NW China. J Metamorph Geol 29:699–720Google Scholar
  12. Chai G, Naldrett AJ (1992a) The Jinchuan ultramafic intrusion: cumulate of a high-MgO basaltic magma. J Petrol 33(2):277–303.  https://doi.org/10.1093/petrology/33.2.277 Google Scholar
  13. Chai G, Naldrett AJ (1992b) Characteristics of Ni–Cu–PGE mineralization and genesis of the Jinchuan deposit, Northwest China. Econ Geol 87(6):1475–1495.  https://doi.org/10.2113/gsecongeo.87.6.1475 Google Scholar
  14. Chen LM, Song XY, Keays RR, Tian YL, Wang YS, Deng YF, Xiao JF (2013) Segregation and fractionation of magmatic Ni-Cu-PGE sulfides in the Western Jinchuan intrusion, Northwestern China: insights from platinum group element geochemistry. Econ Geol 108(8):1793–1811.  https://doi.org/10.2113/econgeo.108.8.1793 Google Scholar
  15. Chen LM, Song XY, Danyushevsky LV, Wang YS, Tian YL, Xiao JF (2015) A laser ablation ICP-MS study of platinum-group and chalcophileelements in base metal sulfide minerals of the Jinchuan Ni–Cu sulfide deposit, NW China. Ore Geol Rev 65:955–967.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oregeorev.2014.07.011 Google Scholar
  16. Coggon JA, Nowell GM, Pearson DG, Parman SW (2011) Application of the 190Pt-186Os isotope system to dating platinum mineralization and ophiolite formation—an example from the Meratus Mountains, Borneo. Econ Geol 106:93–11Google Scholar
  17. Coggon JA, Nowell GM, Pearson DG, Oberthür T, Lorand JP, Melcher F, Parman SW (2012) The 190Pt-186Os decay system applied to dating platinum-group element mineralization of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Chem Geol 302–303:48–60Google Scholar
  18. Coggon JA, Luguet A, Nowell GM, Appel PWU (2013) Hadean mantle melting recorded by southwest Greenland chromitite 186Os signatures. Nat Geosci 6:871–874Google Scholar
  19. de Waal SA, Xu ZH, Li C, Mouri H (2004) Emplacement of viscious mushes in the Jinchuan ultramafic intrusion, Western China. Can Mineral 42:371–392Google Scholar
  20. Du AD, Zhao DM, Wang SX, Sun DZ, Liu DY (2001) Precise Re–Os dating for molybdenite by ID-NTIMS with Carius tube sample preparation. Rock Miner Anal 20:247–252 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  21. Du AD, SQ W, Sun DZ, Wang SX, WJ Q, Markey R, Stein H, Morgan J, Malinovskiy D (2004) Preparation and certification of Re–Os dating reference materials: molybdenite HLP and JDC. Geostand Geoanal Res 28:41–52Google Scholar
  22. Du AD, Qu WJ, Wang DH, Li C (2012) The Re-Os isotope system and its application in mineral deposits. Geological Publish House, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  23. Duan J, Li C, Qian ZZ, Jiao JG, Ripley EM, Feng YQ (2016) Multiple S isotopes, zircon Hf isotopes, whole-rock Sr-Nd isotopes, and spatial variations of PGE tenors in the Jinchuan Ni-Cu-PGE deposit, NW China. Mineral Deposita 51(4):557–574.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00126-015-0626-8 Google Scholar
  24. Farrow CEG, Watkinson DH, Jones PC (1994) Fluid inclusions in sulfides from north and south range Cu-Ni-PGE deposits, Sudbury Structure, Ontario. Econ Geol 89:647–655Google Scholar
  25. Fiorentini M, Beresford S, Barley M, Duuring P, Bekker A, Rosengren N, Cas R, Hronsky J (2012) Sulfide deposits, Agnew-Wiluna greenstone belt, Western Australia: insights from the multiple sulfur isotopes. Econ Geol 107:781–796Google Scholar
  26. Gál B, Molnár F, Guzmics T, Mogessie A, Szabó C, Peterson DM (2013) Segregation of magmatic fluids and their potential in the mobilization of platinum-group elements in the South Kawishiwi intrusion, Duluth Complex, Minnesota—evidence from petrography, apatite geochemistry and coexisting fluid and melt inclusions. Ore Geol Rev 54:59–80Google Scholar
  27. Gao YL, Tang ZL, Song XY, Tian YL, Meng YZ (2009) Study on genesis of the concealed Cu-rich ore body in the Jinchuan Cu-Ni deposit and its prospecting in depth. Acta Petrol Sin 25:3379–3395 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  28. Godel B, Barnes S-J, Maier WD (2007) Platinum-group elements in sulfide minerals, platinum-group minerals, and whole-rocks of the Merensky Reef (Bushveld Complex, South Africa): implications for the formation of the reef. J Petrol 48(8):1569–1604.  https://doi.org/10.1093/petrology/egm030 Google Scholar
  29. Guo YS, Wang JR, Xie XL (2001) Thecharacteristics of the quartz albitophyres from Baiyin mine fields ascertained by isotopes of Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr. J Gansu Sci 13:37–40 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  30. Hannah JL, Stein HJ (2002) Re-Os model for the origin of sulfide deposits in anorthosite-associated intrusive complexes. Econ Geol 97:371–383Google Scholar
  31. Hanski E, Luo ZY, Oduro H, Walker RJ (2011) The Pechenga Ni-Cu sulfide deposits, northwestern Russia: a review with new constraints from the feeder dikes. Econ Geol 17:145–162Google Scholar
  32. Hinchey JG, Hattori KH (2005) Magmatic mineralization and hydrothermal enrichment of the high grade zone at the Lac des Iles palladium mine, Northern Ontario, Canada. Mineral Deposita 40:13–23Google Scholar
  33. Holwell DA, McDonald I (2007) Distribution of platinum-group elements in the Platreef at Overysel, northern Bushveld Complex: a combined PGM and LA-ICP-MS study. Contrib Mineral Petrol 154:171–190Google Scholar
  34. Iljina M (1994) The Portimo Layered Igneous Complex. Acta Univ Ouluensis, Series A 258:1–158Google Scholar
  35. Iljina M, Hanski E (2005) Layered mafic intrusions of the Tornio-Näränkävaara belt. In: Lehtinen M, Nurmi P, Rämö T (eds) Precambrian bedrock of Finland—key to the evolution of the Fennoscandian Shield. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 103–138Google Scholar
  36. Keays RR, Lightfoot PC (2010) Crustal sulfur is required to form magmatic Ni-Cu sulfide deposits: evidence from chalcophile element signatures of Siberian and Deccan trap basalts. Mineral Deposita 45:241–257Google Scholar
  37. Konnunaho JP, Hanski EJ, Bekker A, Halkoaho TAA, Hiebert RS, Wing BA (2013) The Archaean komatiite-hosted, PGE-bearing Ni-Cu sulphide deposit at Vaara, Eastern Finland: evidence for assimilation of external sulphur and post-depositional desulphurization. Mineral Deposita 48:967–989Google Scholar
  38. Lahtinen R, Korja A, Nironen M (2005) Paleoproterozoic tectonic evolution. In: Lehtinen M, Nurmi PA, Rämö OT (eds) Precambrian geology of Finland—key to the evolution of the Fennoscandian Shield. Elsevier BV, Amsterdam, pp 481–532.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0166-2635(05)80012-X Google Scholar
  39. Le Vaillant M, Barnes SJ, Fiorentini ML, Miller J, McCuaig TC, Muccilli P (2015) A hydrothermal Ni-As-PGE geochemical halo around the Miitel komatiite-hosted nickel sulfide deposit, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. Econ Geol 110:505–530Google Scholar
  40. Le Vaillant M, Saleem M, Barnes SJ, Fiorentini ML, Miller J, Beresford S, Perring C (2016) Hydrothermal remobilisation around a deformed and remobilized komatiite-hosted Ni-Cu-(PGE) deposit, Sarah’s Find, Agnew Wiluna greenstone belt, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. Mineral Deposita 51:369–388Google Scholar
  41. Lehmann J, Arndt N, Windley B, Zhou M-F, Wang CY, Harris C (2007) Field relationships and geochemical constraints on the emplacement of the Jinchuan intrusion and its Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide deposit, Gansu, China. Econ Geol 102(1):75–94.  https://doi.org/10.2113/gsecongeo.102.1.75 Google Scholar
  42. Li C, Ripley EM (2011) The giant Jinchuan Ni-Cu-(PGE) deposit: tectonic setting, magma evolution, ore genesis, and exploration implications. Rev Econ Geol 17:163–180Google Scholar
  43. Li C, Ripley EM, Naldrett AJ (2003) Compositional variation of olivine and sulfur isotopes in the Noril’sk and Talnakh intrusions, Siberia: implications for ore-forming processes in dynamic magma conduits. Econ Geol 98:69–86Google Scholar
  44. Li C, Xu ZH, de Waal SA, Ripley EM, Maier WD (2004a) Compositional variations of olivine from the Jinchuan Ni-Cu sulfide deposit, Western China: implications for ore genesis. Mineral Deposita 39(2):159–172.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00126-003-0389-5 Google Scholar
  45. Li XH, Su L, Song B, Liu DY (2004b) SHRIMP zircon U–Pb age of the Jinchuan ultramafic intrusion and its geological significance. Chin Sci Bull 49:420–422 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  46. Li XH, Su L, Chung SL, Li ZX, Liu Y, Song B, Liu DY (2005) Formation of the Jinchuan ultramafic intrusion and the world’s third largest Ni-Cu sulfide deposit: associated with the ~825 Ma South China mantle plume? Geochem Geophys Geosyst 6:1–16Google Scholar
  47. Li C, Ripley EM, Naldrett AJ (2009) A new genetic model for the giant Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide deposits associated with Siberian flood basalts. Econ Geol 104(2):291–301.  https://doi.org/10.2113/gsecongeo.104.2.291 Google Scholar
  48. Lin YH, Zhang LF, Ji JQ, Song SG (2010) 40Ar/39Ar age of Jiugequan lawsonite blueschists in Northern Qilian Mountains and its petrologic significance. Chin Sci Bull 55:2021–2027Google Scholar
  49. Liou JG, Wang X, Coleman RG (1989) Blueschists in major suture zones of China. Tectonics 8:609–619Google Scholar
  50. Liu YJ, Neubauer F, Genser J, Takasu A, Ge XH, Handler R (2006) 40Ar/39Ar ages of blueschist facies pelitic schists from Qingshuigou in the Northern Qilian Mountains, Western China. Island Arc 15:87–198Google Scholar
  51. Ludwig KR (2003) User’s manual for Isoplot 3.00: a geochronological toolkit for Microsoft Excel. Berkeley Geochronology Center Special PublGoogle Scholar
  52. Ma JH (2012) Jinchuan mining ductile shear zone characteristics and its significance. PhD thesis, Chang’an UniversityGoogle Scholar
  53. Maier WD, Rasmussen B, Fletcher I, Godel B, Barnes S, Fisher I, Yang SH, Huhma H, Lahaye Y (2015) Petrogenesis of the 2.765–2.775 Ga Monts de Cristal Complex, Gabon: evidence for direct precipitation of Pt-rich phases from basaltic magma. J Petrol 56(7):1285–1308.  https://doi.org/10.1093/petrology/egv035 Google Scholar
  54. Maier WD, Smithies RH, Spaggiari CV, Barnes SJ, Kirkland CL, Yang SH, Lahaye Y (2016) Petrogenesis and Ni-Cu sulphide potential of mafic-ultramafic rocks in the Mesoproterozoic Fraser zone within the Albany-Fraser Orogen, Western Australia. Precambrian Res 281:27–46Google Scholar
  55. Mogessie A, Stumpfl EF, Weiblen PW (1991) The role of fluids in the formation of platinum-group-minerals, Duluth Complex, Minnesota; mineralogic, textural and chemical evidence. Econ Geol 86(7):1506–1518.  https://doi.org/10.2113/gsecongeo.86.7.1506 Google Scholar
  56. Molnár F, Watkinson DH, Jones PC, Gatter I (1997) Fluid inclusion evidence for hydrothermal enrichment of magmatic ore at the contact zone of the Ni–Cu–platinum group element 4b deposit, Lindsley mine, Sudbury, Canada. Econ Geol 92(6):674–685.  https://doi.org/10.2113/gsecongeo.92.6.674 Google Scholar
  57. Molnár F, Mänttäri I, O’Brien H, Lahaye Y, Pakkanen L, Johanson B, Käpyaho A, Sorjonen-Ward P, Whitehouse M, Sakellaris G (2016) Boron, sulphur and copper isotope systematics in the orogenic gold deposits of the Archaean Hattu schist belt, Eastern Finland. Ore Geol Rev 77:133–162Google Scholar
  58. Morgan JW, Walker RJ, Horan MF, Ellyn SB, Naldrett AT (2002) 190Pt–186Os and 187Re–187Os systematics of the Sudbury Igneous Complex, Ontario. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 66(2):273–290.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7037(01)00768-2 Google Scholar
  59. Mukwakwami J, Lafrance B, Lesher CM, Tinkham DK, Rayner NM, Ames DE (2014a) Deformation, metamorphism and mobilization of Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide ores at Garson mine, Sudbury. Mineral Deposita 49:175–198Google Scholar
  60. Mukwakwami J, Lesher CM, Lafrance B (2014b) Geochemistry of deformed and hydrothermally-mobilized magmatic Ni–Cu–PGE ores at the Garson mine, Sudbury. Econ Geol 109(2):367–386.  https://doi.org/10.2113/econgeo.109.2.367 Google Scholar
  61. Müller W, Shelley M, Miller P, Broude S (2009) Initial performance metrics of a new custom-designed ArF excimer LA-ICPMS system coupled to a two-volume laser-ablation cell. J Anal Atom Spectrom 24:209–214Google Scholar
  62. Mungall JE, Brenan JM (2014) Partitioning of platinum-group elements and Au between sulfide liquid and basalt and the origins of mantle crust fractionation of the chalcophile elements. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 125:265–289.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2013.10.002 Google Scholar
  63. Naldrett AJ (1989) Magmatic Sulfide Deposits. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  64. Naldrett AJ, Duke J (1980) Platinum metals magmatic sulfide ores. Science 208:1417–1424Google Scholar
  65. Naldrett AJ, Asif M, Schandl E, Searcy T, Morrison CG, Binney WP, Moore C (1999) Platinum-group elements in the Sudbury ores: significance with respect to the origin of different ore zones and to the exploration for footwall orebodies. Econ Geol 94:185–210Google Scholar
  66. Olivo GR, Theyer P (2004) Platinum group minerals from the McBratney PGE-Au prospect in the Flin Flon greenstone belt, Manitoba, Canada. Can Mineral 42(2):667–681.  https://doi.org/10.2113/gscanmin.42.2.667 Google Scholar
  67. Prichard HM, Knight RD, Fisher PC, McDonald I, Zhou M-F, Wang CY (2013) Distribution of platinum-group elements in magmatic and altered ores in the Jinchuan intrusion, China: an example of selenium remobilization by postmagmatic fluids. Mineral Deposita 48:767–786Google Scholar
  68. Puchtel IS, Brandon AD, Humayun M (2004) Precise Pt–Re–Os isotope systematics of the mantle from 2.7-Ga komatiites. Earth Planet Sci Lett 224:157–174Google Scholar
  69. Puchtel IS, Brandon AD, Humayun M, Walker RJ (2005) Evidence for the early differentiation of the core from Pt–Re–Os isotope systematics of 2.8-Ga komatiites. Earth Planet Sci Lett 237(1-2):118–134.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2005.04.023 Google Scholar
  70. Puchtel IS, Walker RJ, Brandon AD, Nisbet EG (2009) Pt–Re–Os and Sm–Nd isotope and HSE and REE systematics of the 2.7 Ga Belingwe and Abitibi komatiites. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 73:6367–6389Google Scholar
  71. Puchtel IS, Walker RJ, Mathieu T, Nisbet EG, Byerly GR (2014) Insights into early Earth from the Pt–Re–Os isotope and highly siderophile element abundance systematics of Barberton komatiites. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 125:394–413Google Scholar
  72. Qi XQ, Zhang JX, Li HB, Cai JL (2004) Geochronology of the dextral strike ductile shear zone in south margin of the Northern Qilian Mountains and its geological significance. Earth Sci Front 11:469–479 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  73. Qian Q, Wang YM, Li HM, Jia XQ, Han S, Zhang Q (1998) Geochemical characteristics and genesis of diorites from Laohushan. Gansu Province. Acta Petrol Sin 14:520–528 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  74. Ripley EM (1990) Platinum-group element geochemistry of Cu–Ni mineralization in the basal zone of the Babbit Deposit, Duluth, Complex, Minnesota. Econ Geol 85:830–841Google Scholar
  75. Ripley EM, Li C (2013) Sulfide saturation in mafic magmas: is external sulfur required for magmatic Ni-Cu-(PGE) ore genesis? Econ Geol 108:45–58Google Scholar
  76. Ripley EM, Butler BK, Taib NI, Lee I (1993) Hydrothermal alteration in the Babbitt Cu-Ni deposit, Duluth Complex; mineralogy and hydrogen isotope systematics. Econ Geol 88(3):679–696.  https://doi.org/10.2113/gsecongeo.88.3.679 Google Scholar
  77. Ripley EM, Park YR, Lambert DD, Frick LR (2001) Re-Os isotopic variations in carbonaceous pelites hosting the Duluth Complex: implications for metamorphic and metasomatic processes associated with mafic magma chambers. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 65(17):2965–2978.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7037(01)00635-4 Google Scholar
  78. Ripley EM, Li C, Shin D (2002) Paragneiss assimilation in the genesis of magmatic Ni-Cu-Co sulfide mineralization at Voisey’s Bay, Labrador: 34S, δ13C, and Se/S evidence. Econ Geol 97:1307–1318Google Scholar
  79. Ripley EM, Sarkar A, Li C (2005) Mineralogic and stable isotope studies of hydrothermal alteration at the Jinchuan Ni–Cu deposit, China. Econ Geol 100:1349–1361Google Scholar
  80. Seat Z, Beresford SW, Grguric BA, Gee MAM, Grassineau NV (2009) Reevaluation of the role of external sulfur addition in the genesis of Ni-Cu-PGE deposits: evidence from the Nebo-Babel Ni-Cu-PGE deposit, West Musgrave, Western Australia. Econ Geol 104(4):521–538.  https://doi.org/10.2113/gsecongeo.104.4.521 Google Scholar
  81. SGU (the Sixth Geological Unit of the Geological Survey of Gansu Province) (1984) Geology of the Baijiaozuizi Cu–Ni sulfide deposit. Geological Publish House, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  82. Shirey SB, Walker RJ (1995) Carius tube digestion for low-blank rhenium-osmium analysis. Anal Chem 67(13):2136–2141.  https://doi.org/10.1021/ac00109a036 Google Scholar
  83. Smoliar MI, Walker RJ, Morgan JW (1996) Re-Os ages of group IIA, IIIA, IVA, and IVB iron meteorites. Science 271(5252):1099–1102.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.271.5252.1099 Google Scholar
  84. Song SG, Yang JS, ZQ X, Liou JG, CL W, Shi RD (2003) Metamorphic evolution of coesite-bearing UHP terrane in the North Qaidam, northern Tibet, NW China. J Metamorph Geol 21(6):631–644.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1525-1314.2003.00469.x Google Scholar
  85. Song SG, Zhang LF, Niu YL, Su L, Jian P, Liu DY (2005) Geochronology of diamond bearing zircons from garnet peridotite in the North Qaidam UHPM belt, northern Tibetan Plateau: a record of complex histories from oceanic lithosphere subduction to continental collision. Earth Planet Sci Lett 234(1-2):99–118.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2005.02.036 Google Scholar
  86. Song SG, Zhang LF, Niu YL, Su L, Song B, Liu DY (2006) Evolution from oceanic subduction to continental collision: a case study for the northern Tibetan Plateau based on geochemical and geochronological data. J Petrol 47:435–455Google Scholar
  87. Song XY, Keays RR, Zhou M-F, Qi L, Ihlenfeld C, Xiao JF (2009a) Siderophile and chalcophile elemental constraints on the origin of the Jinchuan Ni-Cu-(PGE) sulfide deposit, NW China. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 73:404–424Google Scholar
  88. Song SG, Niu Y, Zhang LF, Wei CJ, Liou JG, Su L (2009b) Tectonic evolution of early Paleozoic HP metamorphic rocks in the North Qilian Mountains, NW China: new perspectives. J Asian Earth Sci 35(3-4):334–353.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jseaes.2008.11.005 Google Scholar
  89. Song XY, Danyushevsky LV, Keays RR, Chen LM, Wang YS, Tian YL, Xiao JF (2012) Structural, lithological, and geochemical constraints on the dynamic magma plumbing system of the Jinchuan Ni–Cu sulfide deposit, NW China. Mineral Deposita 47:277–297Google Scholar
  90. Song SG, Niu YL, Su L, Zhang C, Zhang LF (2014) Continental orogenesis from ocean subduction, continent collision/subduction, to orogen collapse, and orogen recycling: the example of the North Qaidam UHPM belt, NW China. Earth Sci Rev 129:59–84.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2013.11.010 Google Scholar
  91. Su S, Li C, Zhou M-F, Ripley E, Qi L (2008) Controls on variations of platinum-group element concentrations in the sulfide ores of the Jinchuan Ni-Cu deposit, Western China. Mineral Deposita 43:609–622Google Scholar
  92. Sun WD, Peng ZC, Wang ZR, Yin QZ (1997) Oxygen corrections in negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry determination of rhenium and osmium. J Chin Mass Spectrom Soc 18:1–6 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  93. Tang ZL (1993) Genetic model of the Jinchuan nickel–copper deposit. Geol Assoc Can Spec Pap 40:389–401 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  94. Tang ZL, Li WY (1995) The metallogenetic model and geological contrast of the Jinchuan platinum bearing Cu–Ni sulfide deposit. Geological Publish House, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  95. Tang ZL, Bai YL, Li ZL (2002) Geotectonic settings of large and superlarge mineral deposits on the southwestern margin of the North China Plate. Acta Geol Sin 76:367–377 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  96. Walker RJ, Morgan JW, Naldrett AJ, Li C, Fassett JD (1991) Re–Os systematics of Ni–Cu sulfide ores, Sudbury Igneous Complex, Ontario: evidence for a major crustal component. Earth Planet Sci Lett 105:416–429Google Scholar
  97. Walker RJ, Morgan JW, Beary ES, Smoliar MI, Czamanske GK, Horan MF (1997) Applications of the 190Pt–186Os isotope system to geochemistry and cosmochemistry. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 61:4799–4807Google Scholar
  98. Wang CY, Zhang Q, Qian Q (2005) Geochemistry of the early Paleozoic Baiyin volcanic rocks (NW China): implications for the tectonic evolution of the North Qilian orogenic belt. J Geol 113:83–94Google Scholar
  99. Wood SA (2002) The aqueous geochemistry of the platinum group elements with applications to ore deposits. Can Inst Min Metal Petrol 54:211–249Google Scholar
  100. Wu CL, Xu XY, Gao QM, Li XM, Lei M, Gao YH, Frost RB, Wooden JL (2010) Early Palaezoic granitoid magmatism and tectonic evolution in North Qilian, NW China. Acta Petrol Sin 26:1027–1044 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  101. Yan MC, Wang CS, Gu TX, Chi QH, Yan WD (1998) Preparation of geochemical certified reference materials for platinum group elements. Rock Miner Anal 17:1–21 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  102. Yang G (2005) Applications of Re–Os and Pt–Os isotopic systems in the ore deposit. Doctoral Dissertation of University of Science and Technology of China (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  103. Yang JS, ZQ X, Zhang JX, Song SG, CL W, Shi RD, Li HB, Brunel M (2002) Early Palaeozoic North Qaidam UHP metamorphic belt on the north-eastern Tibetan plateau and a paired subduction model. Terra Nova 14:397–404Google Scholar
  104. Yang G, Du AD, Chen JF, Qu WJ (2003) The measurement of Pt in rocks by isotope dilution ICP-MS. Rock Miner Anal 22:5–9 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  105. Yang G, Du AD, Lu J, Qu WJ, Chen JF (2005) Re–Os dating of massive sulfide ores of the Jinchuan Ni–Cu deposit by ICP-MS. Sci China (D) 35:241–245 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  106. Yang XZ, Ishihara S, Zhao DH (2006) Genesis of the Jinchuan PGE deposit, China: evidence from fluid inclusions, mineralogy and geochemistry of precious elements. Mineral Petrol 86:109–128Google Scholar
  107. Yang SH, WJ Q, Tian YL, Chen JF, Yang G, AD D (2008) Origin of the inconsistent apparent Re–Os ages of the Jinchuan Ni–Cu sulfide ore deposit, China: post-segregation diffusion of Os. Chem Geol 247(3-4):401–418.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2007.11.002 Google Scholar
  108. Yang WT, Duan LZ, Zhang Y (2013) Studying in middle-tectonic level and rock deformation characteristic in Longshoushan area. Northwest Geol 46:44–53 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  109. Yin G, Zhang SF, Fan LM (1998) Isotope geochronology studies of the main geological events on the sulfide ore deposit and neighbourhood in Baiyin, Gansu. Geol Geochem 1:6–14 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  110. Zhang JX, Yang JS, Meng FC, Wan YS, Li HM, CL W (2006) U–Pb isotopic studies of eclogites and their host gneisses in the Xitieshan area of the North Qaidam Mountains, Western China: new evidence for an early Paleozoic HP-UHP metamorphic belt. J Asian Earth Sci 28:143–150Google Scholar
  111. Zhang MJ, Kamo S, Li C, Hu PE, Ripley EM (2010) Precise U-Pb zircon-baddeleyite age of the Jinchuan sulfide ore-bearing ultramafic intrusion, Western China. Mineral Deposita 45:3–9Google Scholar
  112. Zhao GC, Sun M, Wilde SA, Li SZ (2005) Late Archean to Paleoproterozoic evolution of the North China Craton: key issues revisited. Precambrian Res 136:177–202Google Scholar
  113. Zhou M-F, Yang ZX, Song XY, Lesher CM, Keays RR (2002) Magmatic Ni–Cu–(PGE) sulfide deposits in China. In: Cabri LJ (ed) The geology, geochemistry, mineralogy, mineral beneficiation of the platinum-group elements, Can Inst Mining Metall Petrol, Spec Vol 54:619–636Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Re-Os Isotope GeochemistryChinese Academy of Geological SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.Department of Earth and Space ScienceUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaHefeiChina
  3. 3.Oulu Mining SchoolUniversity of OuluOuluFinland
  4. 4.AIRIE Program, Department of GeosciencesColorado State UniversityFort CollinsUSA
  5. 5.Geological Survey of FinlandEspooFinland

Personalised recommendations