Advertisement

Mineralium Deposita

, Volume 52, Issue 2, pp 257–279 | Cite as

The structural history and mineralization controls of the world-class Geita Hill gold deposit, Geita Greenstone Belt, Tanzania

  • I. V. SanislavEmail author
  • M. Brayshaw
  • S. L. Kolling
  • P. H. G. M. Dirks
  • Y. A. Cook
  • T. G. Blenkinsop
Article

Abstract

The Geita Hill gold deposit is located in the Archean Geita Greenstone Belt and is one of the largest gold deposits in East Africa. The Geita Greenstone Belt experienced a complex deformation and intrusive history that is well illustrated and preserved in and around the Geita Hill gold deposit. Deformation involved early stages of ductile shearing and folding (D1 to D5), during which episodic emplacement of large diorite intrusive complexes, sills, and dykes occurred. These ductile deformation phases were followed by the development of brittle-ductile shear zones and faults (D6 to D8). The last stages of deformation were accompanied by voluminous felsic magmatism involving the intrusion of felsic porphyry dykes, within the greenstone belt, and the emplacement of large granitic bodies now forming the margins of the greenstone belt. Early, folded lamprophyre dykes, and later lamprophyre dykes, crosscutting the folded sequence are common, although volumetrically insignificant. The gold deposit formed late during the tectonic history of the greenstone belt, post-dating ductile deformation and synchronous with the development of brittle-ductile shear zones that overprinted earlier structural elements. The main mineralizing process involved sulfide replacement of magnetite-rich layers in ironstone and locally the replacement of ferromagnesian phases and magnetite in the diorite intrusions. The intersection between the brittle-ductile (D6) Geita Hill Shear Zone and different structural elements of ductile origin (e.g., fold hinges), and the contact between banded ironstone and folded diorite dykes and sills provided the optimal sites for gold mineralization.

Keywords

Archean Geita Hill Gold deposits Structural controls Tanzania 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to acknowledge Geita Gold Mine and Anglogold Ashanti for financial support and for allowing publication of this work. In-depth reviews by Gregor Borg, David Lentz, and an anonymous reviewer are greatly acknowledged. Earlier reviews by two anonymous reviewers are also acknowledged.

References

  1. Adomako-Ansah K, Mizuta T, Hammond NQ, Ishiyama D, Ogata T, Chiba H (2013) Gold mineralization in banded iron formation in the Amalia Greenstone Belt, South Africa: a mineralogical and sulfur isotope study. Resour Geology 63:119–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bédard JH, Harris LB, Thurston P (2014) The hunting of the snArc. Precambrian Res 229:20–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bierlein FP, Groves DI, Cawood PA (2009) Metallogeny of accretionary orogens—the connection between lithospheric processes and metal endowment. Ore Geol Rev 36:282–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blenkinsop TG (2004) Orebody geometry in lode gold deposits from Zimbabwe: implications for fluid flow, deformation and mineralization. J Struct Geology 26:1293–1301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blenkinsop TG, Oberthür T, Mapeto O (2000) Gold mineralization in the Mazowe area, Harare-Bindura-Shamva greenstone belt, Zimbabwe: I. Tectonic controls on mineralization. Miner Deposita 35:126–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blewett RS, Czarnota K, Henson PA, Champion DC (2010) Structural-event framework for the eastern Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia, and its implications for orogenic gold. Precamb Res 183:203–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Borg G (1992) New aspects on the lithostratigraphy and evolution of the Siga Hills, an Archaean granite-greenstone terrain in NW-Tanzania. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Geologie 38:89–93Google Scholar
  8. Borg G (1994) The Geita gold deposits, NW-Tanzania. Geology, ore petrology, geochemistry and timing of events. Geologisches JahrbuchD 100:545–595Google Scholar
  9. Borg G, Krogh T (1999) Isotopic age data of single zircons from the Archaean Sukumaland Greenstone Belt, Tanzania. J Afr Earth Sci 29:301–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Borg G, Rittenauer A (2000) Syn‐ and epigenetic sulphides in Archean BIFs of NW‐Tanzania and their significance to gold mineralization. In: Rammlmair (ed) Applied mineralogy. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 263–266Google Scholar
  11. Borg G, Shackleton RM (1997) The Tanzania and NE Zaire Cratons. In: de Wit MJ, Ashwal LD (eds) Greenstone belts. Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp 608–619Google Scholar
  12. Borg G, Lyatuu DR, Rammlmair D (1990) Genetic aspects of the Geita and Jubilee reef, Archean BIF-hosted gold deposits, Tanzania. Geologische Rundschau 79:355–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Carter GS (1959) Exploration at Geita and NE extension mines. Geological Survey of Tanganyika. Report No. GSC/7.Google Scholar
  14. Cassidy KF, Groves DI, Mcnaughton NJ (1998) Late Archean granitoid-hosted lode-gold deposits, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia: deposits characteristics, crustal architecture and implications for ore genesis. Ore Geology Rev 13:65–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chamberlain CM, Tosdal RM (2007) U–Pb geochronology of the Lake Victoria Greenstone Terrane, Tanzania. Mineral Deposit Research Unit, The University of British Columbia. Unpublished Geita Gold Mine internal report, pp. 81Google Scholar
  16. Cloutier J, Stevenson RK, Bardoux M (2005) Nd isotopic, petrologic and geochemical investigation of the Tulawaka East gold deposit, Tanzania Craton. Precambrian Res 139:147–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Colvine AC, Fyon JA, Heather KB, Marmont S, Smith PM, Troop DG (1988) Archaean lode gold deposits in Ontario. Ontario Geological Survey, Ontario, Canada. Miscellaneous Paper 139, pp 136Google Scholar
  18. Cook YA, Sanislav IV, Hammerli J, Blenkinsop T, Dirks PHGM (2015) A primitive mantle source for the Neoarchean mafic rocks form Tanzania Craton. Geoscience Frontiers—in press.Google Scholar
  19. Cowley PN (2001) The discovery and development of the Geita gold deposits, Northern Tanzania. In: Yates K (ed) NewGenGold 2001. Conference Proceedings AMF, Adelaide. 123–135Google Scholar
  20. de Wit MJ, Furnes H, Robins B (2011) Geology and tectonostratigraphy of the Onverwacht Suite, Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. Precambrian Res 186:1–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dirks PHGM, Charlesworth EG, Munyai MR (2009) Cratonic extension and Archaean gold mineralization in the Sheba-Fairview mine, Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. South Afr J Geology 112:291–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dirks PHGM, Charlesworth EG, Munyai MR, Wormald RJ (2013) Stress analyses, post-orogenic extension and 3.01 Ga gold mineralization in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. Precambrian Res 226:157–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Forbes CJ, Betts PG, Lister GS (2004) Synchronous development of Type 2 and Type 3 fold interference patterns: evidence for recumbent sheath folds in the Allendale Area, Broken Hill, NSW, Australia. J Struct Geology 26:113–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gabert G (1990) Lithostratigraphic and tectonic setting of gold mineralization in the Archean cratons of Tanzania and Uganda, East Africa. Precambrian Res 46:59–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Goldfarb RJ, Groves DI, Gardoll S (2001) Orogenic gold and geologic time: a global synthesis. Ore Geol Rev 18:1–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Goldfarb RJ, Groves DI, Taylor RD, Deb M (2010) Controls on the global distribution of orogenic gold and their significance relative to India. In: Deb M, Goldfarb RJ (eds) Gold metallogeny: India and beyond. Alpha Science International, Oxford, UK, pp 48–57Google Scholar
  27. Graseman B, Wiesmayr G, Draganits E, Fusseis F (2004) Classification of refold structures. J Geol 112:119–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Groves DI, Goldfarb RJ, Gebre-Mariam M, Hagemann SG, Robert F (1998) Orogenic gold deposits: a proposed classification in the context of their crustal distribution and relationship to other gold deposit types. Ore Geol Rev 13:7–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Groves DI, Goldfarb RJ, Robert F, Hart C (2003) Gold deposits in metamorphic belts: current understanding, outstanding problems, future research and exploration significance. Econ Geol 98:1–30Google Scholar
  30. Hagemann SG, Groves DI, Ridley JR, Verncombe JR (1992) The Archean lode-gold deposits at Wiluna, Western Australia: high level brittle-style mineralization in a strike-slip regime. Econ Geol 87:1022–1053CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hofmann A, Dirks PHGM, Jelsma HA (2001) Horizontal tectonic deformation geometries in a late Archaean sedimentary sequence, Belingwe greenstone belt, Zimbabwe. Tectonics 20:909–932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hofmann A, Dirks PHGM, Jelsma HA, Matura N (2003) A tectonic origin for ironstone horizons in the Zimbabwe Craton and their significance for greenstone belt geology. J Geological Soc London 160:83–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Horne RG (1959) Notes on the structure at Geita mine. Geological Survey of Tanganyika. Report No. RGH/1.Google Scholar
  34. Jelsma HA, Vinyu ML, Valbracht PJ, Davies GR, Wijbrans JR, Verdurmen EAT (1996) Constraints on Archaean crustal evolution of the Zimbabwe Craton: a U-Pb zircon, Sm-Nd and Pb-Pb whole-rock isotope study. Contrib Mineralogy Petrology 124:55–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kabete JM, Groves DI, Mcnaughton NJ, Mruma AH (2012) A new tectonic and temporal framework for the Tanzanian Shield: implications for gold metallogeny and undiscovered endowment. Ore Geol Rev 48:88–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Krapež B, Barley ME, Pickard AL (2003) Hydrothermal and resedimented origins of the precursor sediments to banded iron formations: sedimentological evidence from the early Palaeoproterozoic Brockman Supersequence of Western Australia. Sedimentology 50:979–1011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kuehn S, Ogola J, Sango P (1990) Regional setting and nature of gold mineralization in Tanzania and southwest Kenya. Precambrian Res 46:71–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kwelwa S, Manya S, Vos INA (2013) Geochemistry and petrogenesis of intrusions at the Golden pride gold deposit in the Nzega greenstone belt, Tanzania. J Afr Earth Sci 86:53–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Leclair AD, Ernst RE, Hattori H (1993) Crustal-scale auriferous shear zones in the central Superior province, Canada. Geology 21:399–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lin S, Beakhouse GP (2013) Synchronous vertical and horizontal tectonism at late stages of Archean cratonization and genesis of Hemlo gold deposit, Superior craton, Ontario, Canada. Geology 41:359–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Manya S, Maboko MAH (2008) Geochemistry of the Neoarchaean mafic volcanic rocks of the Geita area, NW Tanzania: implications for stratigraphical relationships in the Sukumaland greenstone belt. J Afr Earth Sci 52:152–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Miller J, Blewett R, Tunjic J, Connors K (2010) The role of early formed structures on the development of the world class St Ives Goldfield, Yilgarn, WA. Precambrian Res 183:292–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Painter M (2004) Mineralization and structural architecture of the Geita Hill Shear Zone. Unpublished Geita Gold Mine internal report.Google Scholar
  44. Peterson VL, Zaleski E (1999) Structural history of the Manitouwadge greenstone belt and its volcanogenic Cu-Zn massive sulphide deposits, Wawa subprovince, south-central Superior Province. Can J Earth Sci 36:605–625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Quenell AM, McKinlay AC, Aitken WG (1956) Summary of the geology of Tanganyika, part 1. Geological Surv Tanganyika Mem, 1–26Google Scholar
  46. Robert F, Sheahan PA, Green SB (1991) Greenstone gold and crustal evolution. Publication of the Mineral Deposits Division, Geological Association of Canada, 252pp.Google Scholar
  47. Sanislav IV, Wormald RJ, Dirks PHGM, Blenkinsop TG, Salamba L, Joseph D (2014) Zircon U-Pb ages and Lu-Hf isotope systematics from late-tectonic granites, Geita greenstone belt: implications for crustal growth of the Tanzania craton. Precambrian Res 242:187–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sanislav IV, Kolling SL, Brayshaw M, Cook YA, Dirks PHGM, Blenkinsop TG, Mturi MI, Ruhega R (2015) The geology of the giant Nyankanga gold deposit, Geita Greenstone Belt, Tanzania. Ore Geol Rev 69:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Stokes TR, Zentilli M, Culshaw N (1990) Structural and lithological controls of gold bearing quartz breccia zones in Archean metaturbidites, Gordon Lake, Northwest Territories, Canada. Can J Earth Sci 27:1577–1589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Tripp GI, Vearncombe JR (2004) Fault/fracture density and mineralization: a contouring method for targeting in gold exploration. J Struct Geology 26:1087–1108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Vos IMA, Bierlein FP, Standing JG, Davidson GJ (2009) The geology and mineralization at the Golden Pride gold deposit, Nzega greenstone belt, Tanzania. Miner Deposita 44:751–764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Walraven F, Pape J, Borg G (1994) Implications of Pb-isotopic compositions at the Geita gold deposit, Sukumaland Greenstone Belt, Tanzania. J Afr Earth Sci 18:111–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Weatherley DK and Henley RW (2013) Flash vaporization during earthquakes evidenced by gold deposits. Nature Geoscience 6: 294–29.Google Scholar
  54. Weinberg RF, van der Borgh P (2008) Extension and gold mineralization in the Archaean Kalgoorlie Terrane, Yilgarn Craton. Precambrian Res 161:77–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Witt WK, Vanderhor F (1998) Diversity within a unified model for Archaean gold mineralization in the Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia: an overview of the late-orogenic, structurally-controlled gold deposits. Ore Geology Reviews: 29–64.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. V. Sanislav
    • 1
    Email author
  • M. Brayshaw
    • 2
  • S. L. Kolling
    • 2
  • P. H. G. M. Dirks
    • 1
  • Y. A. Cook
    • 1
  • T. G. Blenkinsop
    • 3
  1. 1.Economic Geology Research Centre (EGRU) and Department of Earth and OceansJames Cook UniversityTownsvilleAustralia
  2. 2.Geita Gold MineGeitaTanzania
  3. 3.School of Earth & Ocean SciencesCardiff UniversityCardiffUK

Personalised recommendations