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Mineralium Deposita

, Volume 49, Issue 8, pp 905–932 | Cite as

Stable H–C–O isotope and trace element geochemistry of the Cummins Range Carbonatite Complex, Kimberley region, Western Australia: implications for hydrothermal REE mineralization, carbonatite evolution and mantle source regions

  • Peter J. DownesEmail author
  • Attila Demény
  • György Czuppon
  • A. Lynton Jaques
  • Michael Verrall
  • Marcus Sweetapple
  • David Adams
  • Neal J. McNaughton
  • Lalchand G. Gwalani
  • Brendan J. Griffin
Article

Abstract

The Neoproterozoic Cummins Range Carbonatite Complex (CRCC) is situated in the southern Halls Creek Orogen adjacent to the Kimberley Craton in northern Western Australia. The CRCC is a composite, subvertical to vertical stock ∼2 km across with a rim of phlogopite–diopside clinopyroxenite surrounding a plug of calcite carbonatite and dolomite carbonatite dykes and veins that contain variable proportions of apatite–phlogopite–magnetite ± pyrochlore ± metasomatic Na–Ca amphiboles ± zircon. Early high-Sr calcite carbonatites (4,800–6,060 ppm Sr; La/YbCN = 31.6–41.5; δ13C = −4.2 to −4.0 ‰) possibly were derived from a carbonated silicate parental magma by fractional crystallization. Associated high-Sr dolomite carbonatites (4,090–6,310 ppm Sr; La/YbCN = 96.5–352) and a late-stage, narrow, high rare earth element (REE) dolomite carbonatite dyke (La/YbCN = 2756) define a shift in the C–O stable isotope data (δ18O = 7.5 to 12.6 ‰; δ13C = −4.2 to −2.2 ‰) from the primary carbonatite field that may have been produced by Rayleigh fractionation with magma crystallization and cooling or through crustal contamination via fluid infiltration. Past exploration has focussed primarily on the secondary monazite-(Ce)-rich REE and U mineralization in the oxidized zone overlying the carbonatite. However, high-grade primary hydrothermal REE mineralization also occurs in narrow (<1 m wide) shear-zone hosted lenses of apatite–monazite-(Ce) and foliated monazite-(Ce)–talc rocks (≤∼25.8 wt% total rare earth oxide (TREO); La/YbCN = 30,085), as well as in high-REE dolomite carbonatite dykes (3.43 wt% TREO), where calcite, parisite-(Ce) and synchysite-(Ce) replace monazite-(Ce) after apatite. Primary magmatic carbonatites were widely hydrothermally dolomitized to produce low-Sr dolomite carbonatite (38.5–282 ppm Sr; La/YbCN = 38.4–158.4; δ18O = 20.8 to 21.9 ‰; δ13C = −4.3 to −3.6 ‰) that contains weak REE mineralization in replacement textures, veins and coating vugs. The relatively high δD values (−54 to −34 ‰) of H2O derived from carbonatites from the CRCC indicate that the fluids associated with carbonate formation contained a significant amount of crustal component in accordance with the elevated δ13C values (∼−4 ‰). The high δD and δ13C signature of the carbonatites may have been produced by CO2–H2O metasomatism of the mantle source during Paleoproterozoic subduction beneath the eastern margin of the Kimberley Craton.

Keywords

Carbonatite REE mineralization H–C–O stable isotopes Phoscorite Clinopyroxenite Monazite-(Ce) Kimberley 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Bernie Kirkpatrick from Navigator Resources and Geoff Collis from Kimberley Rare Earths for providing samples and geological data from the CRCC, as well as company illustrations and images. Geochemical analyses were funded, in part, by the Geological Survey of Western Australia, the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and the Western Australian Museum. We thank Liz Webber and Bill Pappas for the geochemical analyses undertaken at Geoscience Australia and Jeremy Wykes for the LA-ICP-MS analyses done at ANU. James Tolley (ANU) kindly provided a digital version of the simplified geological map. Dr. Lena Hancock from the Geological Survey of Western Australia (GSWA) provided HyLogger data and helped with discussions of the Cummins Range geology. The staff of the GSWA core library provided access to and samples from the Cummins Range drill core. Prof. A.E. Williams-Jones and an anonymous reviewer provided very helpful detailed reviews of an earlier version of this manuscript. Dr. Ben Grguric gave helpful guidance in the interpretation of sulphide and replacement textures.

Supplementary material

126_2014_552_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (13.6 mb)
Appendix 1 (XLSX 13893 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter J. Downes
    • 1
    Email author
  • Attila Demény
    • 2
  • György Czuppon
    • 2
  • A. Lynton Jaques
    • 3
  • Michael Verrall
    • 4
  • Marcus Sweetapple
    • 4
  • David Adams
    • 5
    • 6
  • Neal J. McNaughton
    • 7
  • Lalchand G. Gwalani
    • 8
  • Brendan J. Griffin
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Earth and Planetary SciencesWestern Australian MuseumWelshpool DCAustralia
  2. 2.Institute for Geological and Geochemical Research, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth SciencesHungarian Academy of SciencesBudaörsi út 45Hungary
  3. 3.Research School of Earth SciencesAustralian National UniversityCanberraAustralia
  4. 4.CSIRO Earth Science and Resource EngineeringPerthAustralia
  5. 5.Centre for Microscopy, Characterisation and Analysis, M010University of Western AustraliaCrawleyAustralia
  6. 6.GEMOC, Department of Earth and Planetary SciencesMacquarie UniversitySydneyAustralia
  7. 7.John de Laeter Centre for Isotope Research, Department of Applied GeologyCurtin UniversityPerthAustralia
  8. 8.Speewah Research Project C/King River Copper LimitedPerthAustralia

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