Mineralium Deposita

, Volume 45, Issue 4, pp 331–350 | Cite as

Alteration of platinum-group minerals and dispersion of platinum-group elements during progressive weathering of the Aguablanca Ni–Cu deposit, SW Spain

  • Saioa SuárezEmail author
  • Hazel M. Prichard
  • Francisco Velasco
  • Peter C. Fisher
  • Iain McDonald


The distribution, mineralogy and mobility of the platinum-group elements (PGE) in the surface environment are poorly understood. This study of the lower, less altered and upper, more altered gossan, overlying the Aguablanca Ni–Cu-(PGE) magmatic deposit (Spain), has shown that the platinum-group minerals (PGM) are progressively oxidised and dispersed into iron oxides that form the gossan. A combination of the characterization of PGE in host PGM, using a scanning electron microscope, and measurement of PGE at lower concentrations in host iron oxides, using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), has for the first time allowed the total distribution of the PGE within a gossan to be documented. This study has revealed a complete in situ alteration and dispersion sequence of the PGM including (1) breakdown of both the more stable Pt-arsenides, Pt/Pd-tellurides and the less stable bismuthotellurides, (2) formation of partially oxidised PGM, (3) development of a wide range of oxidised Pt- and Pd-bearing phases, (4) subsequent formation of Fe–PGE-oxides and PGE-hydroxides, (5) incorporation of PGE into ferruginous supergene products and lastly (6) concentration of PGE at the edges of veins and iron oxides. Dispersion of Pd is greater than for the other PGE with Pd being widely distributed throughout the iron oxides. This oxidising environment produced PGE-oxides rather than PGE-alloys, also commonly found in the surface environment, especially in placers. These results provide critical evidence for the stages of mineralogical change from PGE host mineralogy in magmatic ores to surface weathering producing PGE-oxides.


Ni–Cu gossan Platinum-group minerals Platinum-group elements LA-ICP-MS Aguablanca Spain 



The authors would like to thank the staff from Rio Narcea Recursos S.A. for allowing access to the Aguablanca mine and for their assistance during the field studies. Technical support from SGIker (Ministry of Education and Science of Spain, Basque Government, European Social Fund, University of the Basque Country) is also gratefully acknowledged. Thanks are also extended to Dr. I. Yusta (UPV). Drs. Thomas Oberthür and Fernando Tornos are exceptionally thanked for their detailed review of the paper and Dr. Bernd Lehmann for handling the manuscript. Financial support was supplied by the research projects CGL2005-00798/BTE (Ministry of Education and Science of Spain) and IT-446-07 (Basque Department of Education, Universities and Research) and by the research fellowship AP-20034667 (Ministry of Education and Science of Spain).

Supplementary material

126_2009_275_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (113 kb)
ESM 1 Chemical composition of the Aguablanca weathering profile (PDF 113 kb)
126_2009_275_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (1.6 mb)
ESM 2 Compositional variations between a Pd–Cu-oxide (left), adjacent to a partially oxidised Pt-PGM (right), in a sample from the lower gossan (sample P501C(B); Fig. 3, 12) (PDF 1.56 mb)
126_2009_275_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (70 kb)
ESM 3 Concentrations of major and trace elements in crystals of pyrite determined by LA-ICP-MS (PDF 70 kb)


  1. Augé T (1985) Platinum-group-mineral inclusions in ophiolitic chromitite from the Vourinos Complex, Greece. Can Mineral 23(2):163–171Google Scholar
  2. Augé T, Legendre O (1994) Platinum-group element oxides from the Pirogues ophiolitic mineralization, New Caledonia; origin and significance. Econ Geol 89(7):1454–1468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Augustithis SS (1965) Mineralogical and geochemical studies of the platiniferous dunite–birbirite–pyroxenite complex of Yubdo/Birbir, W. Ethiopia. Chem Erde 24:159–196Google Scholar
  4. Bai W, Robinson PT, Fang Q, Yang J, Yan B, Zhang Z, Hu X, Zhou M, Malpas J (2000) The PGE and base-metal alloys in the podiform chromitites of the Luobusa Ophiolite, Southern Tibet. Can Mineral 38(3):585–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blain CF, Andrew RL (1977) Sulfide weathering and the evaluation of gossans in mineral exploration. Miner Sci Eng 9(3):119–150Google Scholar
  6. Boudreau AE, Mathez EA, McCallum IS (1986) Halogen geochemistry of the stillwater and bushveld complexes: evidence for transport of the platinum-group elements by Cl-rich fluids. J Petrol 27(4):967–986Google Scholar
  7. Bowles JFW (1986) The development of platinum-group minerals in laterites. Econ Geol 81(5):1278–1285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bowles JFW (1988) Further studies of the development of platinum-group minerals in the laterites of the Freetown layered complex, Sierra Leone. In: Prichard HM, Potts PJ, Bowles JFW, Cribb SJ (eds) Geo-Platinum 87. Elsevier Applied Science, New York, pp 273–280Google Scholar
  9. Bowles JFW (1990) Platinum-iron alloys, their structural and magnetic characteristics in relation to hydrothermal and low-temperature genesis. Mineral Petrol 43(1):37–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bowles JFW (1995) The development of platinum-group minerals (PGM) in laterites: mineral morphology. Chron Rech Min 520:55–63Google Scholar
  11. Brookins DG (1987) Platinoid element Eh-pH diagrams (25°C, 1 bar) in the systems M-O-H-S with geochemical applications. Chem Geol 64:17–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bull AJ, Mazzucchelli RH (1975) Application of discriminant analysis to the geochemical evaluation of gossans. In: Elliott IL, Fletcher WK (eds) Geochemical Exploration 1974. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 219–226Google Scholar
  13. Cabri LJ (ed) (1981) Platinum-group elements: mineralogy, geology, recovery. Can Inst Mining Metall Petroleum, Spec Vol 23Google Scholar
  14. Cabri LJ, Rowland JF, Gilles Laflamme JH, Stewart JM (1979) Keithconnite, telluropalladinite and other Pd-Pt tellurides from the stillwater complex, Montana. Can Min 17:589–594Google Scholar
  15. Cabri LJ, Harris DC, Weiser TW (1996) Mineralogy and distribution of platinum-group minerals (PGM) from placer deposits of the world. Explor Min Geol 5(2):73–167Google Scholar
  16. Casquet C (1980) Fenómenos de endomorfismo, metamorfismo y metasomatismo en los mármoles de la Rivera de Cala (Sierra Morena). PhD Thesis. Universidad Complutense, MadridGoogle Scholar
  17. Casquet C, Galindo C, Tornos F, Velasco F (2001) The Aguablanca Cu-Ni ore deposit (Extremadura, Spain), a case of synorogenic orthomagmatic mineralization: isotope composition of magmas (Sr, Nd) and ore (S). Ore Geol Rev 18:237–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cochrane RHA (1973) A guide to the geochemistry of nickeliferous gossans and related rocks from the Eastern Goldfields. West Aust Geol Surv Annu Rep 1972:69–75Google Scholar
  19. Cook SJ, Fletcher WK (1994) Platinum distribution in soil profiles of the Tulameen ultramafic complex, southern British Columbia. J Geochem Explor 51:161–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cornell RM, Schwertmann U (1996) The iron oxides. Structure, properties, reactions, occurrence and uses. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  21. Cotton FA, Wilkinson G (1988) Advanced inorganic chemistry, 5th edn. John Wiley & Sons IncGoogle Scholar
  22. Cox R (1975) Geochemical soil surveys in exploration for nickel-copper sulphides at Pioneer, near Norseman, Western Australia. In: Elliott IL, Fletcher WK (eds) Geochemical exploration 1974. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 437–460Google Scholar
  23. Eguiluz L, Gil Ibarguchi JI, Abalos B, Apraiz A (2000) Superposed Variscan and Cadomian orogenic cycles in the Ossa-Morena Zone and related areas of the Iberian Massif. Geol Soc Am Bull 112:1398–1413Google Scholar
  24. Evans DM, Buchanan DL, Hall GEM (1994) Dispersion of platinum, palladium and gold from the Main Sulphide Zone, Great Dyke, Zimbabwe. Appl Earth Sci (Trans Inst Min Metall) 103:57–67Google Scholar
  25. Evstigneeva TL, Moh GH, Tarkian M (1995) Hydrothermal recrystallization of PGE- and Fe–Ni-sulfide assemblages. Neues Jahrb Miner-Abh 149:273–277Google Scholar
  26. Feather CE (1976) Mineralogy of platinum-group minerals in the Witwatersrand, South Africa. Econ Geol 71(7):1399–1428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fletcher WK, Cook SJ, Hall GEM, Scagel RK, Dunn CE (1995) Enrichment in platinum and associated elements in organic seepage soils of the Tulameen ultramafic complex, Southern British Columbia. J Geochem Explor 54(1):39–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fuchs WA, Rose AW (1974) The geochemical behavior of platinum and palladium in the weathering cycle in the stillwater complex, Montana. Econ Geol 69(3):332–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Garrels RM, Christ CL (1965) Solutions, minerals, and equilibria. Harper & Row, Publishers, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  30. Garuti G, Zaccarini F (1997) In situ alteration of platinum-group minerals at low temperature; evidence from serpentinized and weathered chromitite of the Vourinos Complex, Greece. Can Mineral 35(3):611–626Google Scholar
  31. Garuti G, Fershtater G, Bea F, Montero P, Pushkarev EV, Zaccarini F (1997) Platinum-group elements as petrological indicators in mafic-ultramafic complexes of the Central and Southern Urals: preliminary results. Tectonophysics 276:181–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Holwell DA, McDonald I (2007) Distribution of PGE in the Platreef at Overysel, Northern Bushveld complex: a combined PGM and LA-ICP-MS study. Contrib Mineral Petrol 154:171–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hutchinson D, McDonald I (2008) Laser ablation ICP-MS study of platinum-group elements in sulphides from the Platreef at Turfspruit, northern limb of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Miner Deposita 43(6):695–711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. ITGE (1990) Mapa Geológico de España a escala 1/50.000 núm. 918 (Santa Olalla de Cala). Instituto Tecnológico Geominero de España, MadridGoogle Scholar
  35. Ixer RA, Prichard HM (1989) The mineralogy and paragenesis of Pt, Pd, Au and Ag-bearing assemblages at Cliff, Shetland. Bull Geol Soc Finl 61:40Google Scholar
  36. Jedwab J (1992) Platinum group minerals in ultrabasic rocks and nickeliferous veins from Zabargad Island (Egypt). C R Acad Sci Paris 314(II):157–163Google Scholar
  37. Jedwab J (1995) Oxygenated platinum-group-elements and transition-metal (Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ce)-compounds in the supergene domain. Chron Rech Min 520:47–53Google Scholar
  38. Jedwab J, Cassedanne J, Criddle AJ, du Ry P, Ghysens G, Meisser N, Piret P, Stanley CJ (1993) Rediscovery of palladinite PdO from Itabira (Minas Gerais, Brazil) and from Ruwe (Shaba, Zaire). Terra Abstracts, suppl to Terra Nova 5:p 22Google Scholar
  39. Kinloch ED, Peyerl W (1990) Platinum-group minerals in various rock types of the Merensky Reef; genetic implications. Econ Geol 85(3):537–555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kunilov VY (1994) Geology of the Noril’sk region: the history of the discovery, prospecting, exploration and mining of the Noril'sk deposits. In: Naldrett AJ, Lightfoot PC (eds) Proceedings of the Sudbury-Noril’sk Symposium, Sudbury, Ontario. Geol Surv Spec Publ 5:pp 203–216Google Scholar
  41. Locmelis M, Melcher F, Oberthür T (2010) Platinum-group element distribution in the oxidized Main Sulfide Zone, Great Dyke, Zimbabwe. Miner Deposita 45:93–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Loucks RR, McCallum ME (1980) Platinum-group minerals in the New Rambler copper–nickel deposit, Wyoming: a preliminary report. Proceeding, XIth IMA Meeting, 1978, Novosibirsk. In: Sidorenko AV (ed) Sulphosalts, platinum minerals and ore microcopy. Nauka Publishing House, Moscow, pp 200–218Google Scholar
  43. Lunar R, García Palomero F, Ortega L, Sierra J, Moreno T, Prichard HM (1997) Ni–Cu-(PGM) mineralization associated with mafic and ultamafic rocks: the recently discovered Aguablanca ore deposit, SW Spain. In: Papunen H (ed) Mineral deposits: research and esxploration. Where do they meet? Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 463–466Google Scholar
  44. Makovicky E (2002) Ternary and Quaternary Phase Systems with PGE. In: Cabri LJ (ed) The Geology, Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Mineral Beneficiation of Platinum-Group Elements. Can Inst Mining Metall Petroleum, Special Vol 54:pp 131–175Google Scholar
  45. Martín-Estévez JR, Ortega L, Lunar R, García-Palomero F (2000) Características texturales y geoquímicas de la pirita en la mineralización intramagmática de Ni-Cu-EGP de Aguablanca (Badajoz). Cuadernos del Laboratorio Xeológico de Laxe 25:107–110Google Scholar
  46. Mathez EA (1989) Interactions involving fluids in the Stillwater and Bushveld complexes: observations from the rocks. In: Whitney JA, Naldrett AJ (eds) Ore deposition associated with magmas. Rev Econ Geol 4:167–180Google Scholar
  47. Mathez EA, Peach CL (1989) The geochemistry of the platinum-group elements in mafic and ultramafic rocks. In: Whitney JA and Naldrett AJ (eds) Ore deposition associated with Magmas. Rev Econ Geol 4:33–43Google Scholar
  48. McCallum ME, Loucks RR, Carlson RR, Cooley EF, Doerge TA (1976) Platinum metals associated with hydrothermal copper ores of the New Rambler Mine, Medicine Bow Mountains, Wyoming. Econ Geol 71(7):1429–1450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. McDonald I (2005) Development of sulphide standards for the in-situ analysis of platinum-group elements by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). In: Tormanen TO and Alapieti TT (eds) 10th Int Platinum Symp, Ext Abs, pp 468–471Google Scholar
  50. McDonald I (2008) Platinum-group element and sulphide mineralogy from ultramafic complexes at Andriamena, Madagascar. Appl Earth Sci (Trans Inst Min Metall) 117(1):1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. McDonald I, Ohnenstetter D, Ohnenstetter M, Vaughan DJ (1999a) Palladium oxides in ultramafic complexes near Lavatrafo, western Andriamena, Madagascar. Mineral Mag 63(3):345–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. McDonald I, Ohnenstetter D, Rowe JP, Tredoux M, Pattrick RAD, Vaughan DJ (1999b) Platinum precipitation in the Waterberg Deposit, Naboomspruit, South Africa. S Afr J Geol 102(3):184–191Google Scholar
  53. Melcher F, Oberthür T, Lodziak J (2005) Modification of detrital platinum-group minerals from the Eastern Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Can Mineral 43(5):1711–1734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Milliotti CA, Stumpfl EF (1996) Ruthenium oxide, palladium iodade and platinum group element-bearing goethites from the Niquelandia Complex, and their significance. Congresso Brasileiro de Geologia- Magmatismo màfico-ultramàfico e depôsitos minerais associados, pp 172–175Google Scholar
  55. Mogessie A, Stumpfl EF, Weiblen PW (1991) The role of fluids in the formation of platinum-group minerals, Duluth Complex, Minnesota: mineralogical, textural and chemical evidence. Econ Geol 86:1506–1518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Moreno T, Prichard HM, Lunar R, Monterrubio S, Fisher P (1999) Formation of a secondary platinum-group mineral assemblage in chromitites from the Herbeira ultramafic massif in Cabo Ortegal, NW Spain. Eur J Mineral 11(2):363–378Google Scholar
  57. Naldrett AJ, Cabri LJ (1976) Ultramafic and related mafic rocks; their classification and genesis with special reference to the concentration of nickel sulfides and platinum-group elements. Econ Geol 71(7):1131–1158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Naldrett AJ, Duke JM (1980) Platinum metals in magmatic sulfide ores. Science 208:1417–1424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Naldrett AJ, Asif M, Scandl E, Searcy T, Morrison GG, Binney WP, Moore C (1999) Platinum-group elements in the Sudbury ores; significance with respect to the origin of different ore zones and to the exploration for footwall orebodies. Econ Geol 94(2):185–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Nickel EH (1979) Gossan mineralogy viewed in the context of solution chemistry. In: Glover JE and Smith RE (eds) Pathfinder and multielement geochemistry in mineral exploration: Geol Dept and Ext Serv. University of Western AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  61. Oberthür T, Melcher F (2005) Behavior of PGE and PGM in the supergene environment: a case study of persistence and redistribution in the Main Sulfide Zone of the Great Dyke, Zimbabwe. In: Mungall JE (ed) Exploration for Platinum-Group Element Deposits. Mineral Assoc Can, Short Course Vol 35:pp 97–111Google Scholar
  62. Oberthür T, Weiser TW, Gast L (2003) Geochemistry and mineralogy of platinum-group elements at Hartley Platinum Mine, Zimbabwe. Part 2: supergene redistribution in the oxidized Main Sulfide Zone of the Great Dyke, and alluvial platinum-group minerals. Miner Deposita 38(3):344–355Google Scholar
  63. Orberger B, Friedrich G, Woermann E (1988) Platinum-group element mineralization in the ultramafic sequence of the Acoje ophiolite block, Zambales, Philippines. In: Prichard HM, Potts PJ, Bowles JFW, Cribb SJ (eds) Geo-Platinum 87. Elsevier Applied Science, New York, pp 361–380Google Scholar
  64. Ortega L, Lunar R, García-Palomero F, Moreno T, Prichard HM (2002) Características geológicas y mineralógicas del yacimiento de Ni–Cu-EGP de Aguablanca (Badajoz). Bol Soc Esp Mineral 25:57–78Google Scholar
  65. Ortega L, Lunar R, García-Palomero F, Moreno T, Martín-Estévez JR, Prichard HM, Fisher PC (2004) The Aguablanca Ni–Cu-PGE deposit, southwestern Iberia: magmatic ore-forming processes and retrograde evolution. Can Mineral 42:325–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Ottemann J, Augustithis SS (1967) Geochemistry and origin of “platinum-nuggets” in laterite covers from ultrabasic rocks and birbirites of W. Ethiopia. Miner Deposita 1(4):269–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Piña R, Gervilla F, Ortega L, Lunar R (2008) Mineralogy and geochemistry of platinum group elements in the Aguablanca Ni–Cu deposit (SW Spain). Mineral Petrol 92:259–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Prichard HM, Lord RA (1994) Evidence for the mobility of PGE in the secondary environment in the Shetland ophiolite complex. Appl Earth Sci (Trans Inst Min Metall) 103:79–86Google Scholar
  69. Prichard HM, Ixer RA, Lord RA, Maynard J, Williams N (1994) Assemblages of platinum-group minerals and sulfides in silicate lithologies and chromite-rich rocks within the Shetland ophiolite. Can Mineral 32(2):271–294Google Scholar
  70. Prichard HM, Sá JHS, Fisher PC (2001) Platinum-group mineral assemblages and chromite composition in the altered and deformed Bacuri Complex, Amapa, Northeastern Brazil. Can Mineral 39(2):377–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Prichard HM, Economou-Eliopoulos M, Fisher PC (2008a) Contrasting platinum-group mineral assemblages from two different podiform chromitite localities in the Pindos ophiolite complex, Greece. Can Mineral 46:329–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Prichard HM, Neary CR, Fisher PC, O’Hara MJ (2008b) PGE-rich podiform chromitites in the Al `Ays ophiolite complex, Saudi Arabia: an example of critical mantle melting to extract and concentrate PGE. Econ Geol 103(7):1507–1529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Quesada C, Florido P, Gumiel P, Osborne J, Larrea F, Baeza L, Ortega C, Tornos F, Sigüenza J (1987) Mapa Geológico Minero de Extremadura. Junta de Extremadura, Dirección General Industria, Energía y MinasGoogle Scholar
  74. Rio Narcea Recursos SA (2009) Technical report on the Aguablanca Ni–Cu Deposit, Extremadura Region, Spain. Report Number: 08511150292. Lunding Mining Corporation Web. ( Accessed 2 November 2009
  75. Sá JHS, Barnes SJ, Prichard HM, Fisher PC (2005) The distribution of base metals and platinum-group elements in magnetite and its host rocks in the Rio Jaracé intrusion, northeastern Brazil. Econ Geol 100:333–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Salpéteur I, Martel-Jantin B, Rakotomanana D (1995) Pt and Pd mobility in ferralitic soils of the West Andriamena area (Magadascar). Evidence of a supergene origin of some Pt and Pd minerals. Chron Rech Min 520:27–45Google Scholar
  77. Seabrook CL, Prichard HM, Fisher PC (2004) Platinum-group minerals in the Raglan Ni–Cu-(PGE) deposit, Cape Smith, Quebec, Canada. Can Mineral 42:485–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Smith RE (ed) (1982) Geochemical exploration in deeply weathered terrain. CISRO Institute of Energy and Earth Resources. Division of Mineralogy, W AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  79. Suárez S, Velasco F, Yusta I (2005) Caracterización química y mineralógica de suelos en el yacimiento magmático Ni–Cu de Aguablanca, Badajoz (España). Macla 3:201–202Google Scholar
  80. Thornber MR (1985) Supergene alteration of sulphides: VII. Distribution of elements during the gossan-forming process. Chem Geol 53(3–4):279–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Tornos F, Casquet C, Galindo C, Velasco F, Canales A (2001) A new style of Ni–Cu mineralization related to magmatic breccia pipes in a transpressional magmatic arc, Aguablanca, Spain. Miner Deposita 36(7):700–706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Tornos F, Casquet C, Galindo C, Velasco F, Canales A (2002) The Aguablanca Ni–Cu orebody (Ossa Morena Zone, SW Spain): geologic and geochemical features. Bol Soc Esp Mineral 25:99–116Google Scholar
  83. Tornos F, Galindo C, Casquet C, Rodríguez Pevida L, Martínez C, Martínez E, Velasco F, Iriondo A (2006) The Aguablanca Ni-(Cu) sulfide deposit, SW Spain: geologic and geochemical controls and the relationship with a midcrustal layered mafic complex. Miner Deposita 41:737–769CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Traoré D, Beauvais A, Augé T, Chabaux T, Parisot C, Cathelineau M, Peiffert C, Colin F (2006) Platinum and palladium mobility in supergene environment: the residual origin of the Pirogues River mineralization, New Caledonia. J Geochem Explor 88:350–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Travis GA, Keays RR, Davison RM (1976) Palladium and iridium in the evaluation of nickel gossans in Western Australia. Econ Geol 71(7):1229–1243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Velasco F (1976) Mineralogía y metalogenia de los skarns de Santa Olalla (Huelva). PhD Thesis. Universidad del País Vasco, BilbaoGoogle Scholar
  87. Weiser TW (1990) The quantitative proof of the existence of PGE oxides. International Platinum Symposium, 6th, Perth. Abs, p 52Google Scholar
  88. Weiser TW (2002) Platinum-Group Minerals (PGM) in Placer Deposits. In: Cabri LJ (ed) The geology, geochemistry, mineralogy and mineral beneficiation of platinum-group elements. Can Inst Mining Metall Petroleum, Special Vol 54:pp 721–756Google Scholar
  89. Westland AD (1981) Inorganic chemistry of the platinum-group elements. In: Cabri LJ (ed) Platinum-group elements: mineralogy, geology, recovery. Can Inst Mining Metall Petroleum, Spec Vol 23(chapter 2):pp 5–18Google Scholar
  90. Williams PA (1990) Oxide zone geochemistry. Ellis Horwood Limited, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  91. Wilmshurst JR (1975) The weathering products of nickeliferous sulphides and their associated rocks in Western Australia. In: Elliott IL, Fletcher WK (eds) Geochemical exploration 1974. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 417–436Google Scholar
  92. Wood SA (2002) The aqueous geochemistry of the platinum-group elements with applications to ore deposits. In Cabri LJ (ed) The geology, geochemistry, mineralogy and mineral beneficiation of platinum-group elements. Can Inst Mining Metall Petroleum, Spec Vol 54:pp 211–249Google Scholar
  93. Wood SA, Mountain BW, Pan P (1992) The aqueous geochemistry of platinum, palladium and gold; recent experimental constraints and a re-evaluation of theoretical predictions. Can Mineral 30(4):955–982Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Saioa Suárez
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Hazel M. Prichard
    • 2
  • Francisco Velasco
    • 1
  • Peter C. Fisher
    • 2
  • Iain McDonald
    • 2
  1. 1.Departamento de Mineralogía y PetrologíaUniversidad del País VascoLejona (Vizcaya)Spain
  2. 2.School of Earth and Ocean ScienceCardiff UniversityCardiffUK

Personalised recommendations