Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

High-purity quartz mineralisation in kyanite quartzites, Norway

Abstract

This study presents an evaluation of Norwegian kyanite quartzites from Gullsteinberget, Knøsberget, Kjeksberget, Sormbrua, Tverrådalen, Juovvačorrú and Nasafjellet as potential deposits of high-purity quartz (HPQ) for use as raw material for special applications in high-technology industries. Fine-grained quartz, which forms 70 to 85 vol.% of these rocks, generally contains less than 50 μg g−1 (total sum) of the structurally incorporated trace elements B, Li, Al, Ge, Ti, Fe, Mn, K and P. The concentrations are in the same range as those found in HPQ products, which are being mined and produced in Norway and elsewhere. Quartz analyses were performed using laser ablation–inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Complimentary whole-rock analyses and cathodoluminescence studies of quartz were carried out to reveal processes, which have led to the low trace-element concentrations in quartz. This discovery, together with a better knowledge of the processes leading to the formation of HPQ in kyanite quartzites, could lead to the recognition of a new global type of HPQ resource applicable for industrial use. However, the processing technology necessary to separate HPQ from kyanite quartzite economically has not been developed so far.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

References

  1. Andréasson PG, Dallmeyer RD (1995) Tectonothermal evolution of high-alumina rocks within the Protogine Zone, southern Sweden. J Metamorph Geol 13:461–474

  2. Bibikova EV, Ihlen PM, Marker M (2001) Age of the hydrothermal alteration leading to garnetite and kyanite pseudo-quartzite formation in the Khizovaara segment of the late Archean Keret Greenstone Belt, Russian Karelia. EUG XI Strasbourg, 8.–12.4.2001. J Conf Abstr 6:277

  3. Dahl Ø (1980) Nasa og Stødi kyanittfelter-resultater fra diamantboring og geologiske undersøkelser sommeren 1980. Aspro rapport 1115. Bergvesenrapport BV 3506, p 21

  4. Ek R, Nysten P (1990) Phosphate mineralogy of the Hålsjöberg and Hökensås kyanite deposits. Geol Foren Stockh Forh 112:9–18

  5. Feldmann I, Tittes W, Jakubowski N, Stuewer D, Giessmann U (1994) Performance characteristics of inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry with high-mass resolution. J Anal At Spectrom 9:1007–1014

  6. Flem B, Bedard LP (2002) Determination of trace elements in BCS CRM 313/1 (BAS) and NIST SRM 1830 by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis. Geostand Newsl 26:287–300

  7. Flem B, Larsen RB, Grimstvedt A, Mansfeld J (2002) In situ analysis of trace elements in quartz by using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Chem Geol 182:237–247

  8. Gao S, Liu X, Yuan H, Hattendorf B, Günther D, Chen L, Hu S (2002) Determination of forty-two major and trace elements in USGS and NIST SRM glasses by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Geostand Newsl 26:181–196

  9. Gießmann U, Greb U (1994) High resolution ICP-MS—a new concept for elemental mass spectrometry. Fresenius J Anal Chem 350:186–193

  10. Gjelle S (1988) Geologisk kart over Norge, berggrunnskart Saltdal, M 1: 250.000. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse, Trondheim, Norway

  11. Götze J, Plötze M, Habermann D (2001) Origin, spectral characteristics and practical applications of the cathodoluminescence (CL) of quartz—a review. Mineral Petrol 71:225–250

  12. Govindaraju K (1994) Compilation of working values and sample description for 383 geostandards. Geostand Newsl 18(Special Issue):1–158

  13. Günther D, Heinrich CA (1999) Enhanced sensitivity in LA–ICP-MS using helium–argon mixtures as aerosol carrier. J Anal At Spectrom 14:1369–1374

  14. Haus R (2005) High demands on high purity. Ind Miner 10:62–67

  15. Hora ZD (1998) Industrial minerals in island arcs. In: Metallogeny of volcanic arcs. B.C. Geological Survey, Short Course Notes, Open File 1998-8, Section L. Accessed 20th May 2005. http://www.em.gov.bc.ca/Mining/Geolsurv/MetallicMinerals/metallogeny/L98_ Abstract_Hora.HTM

  16. Horn I, Hinton RW, Jackson SE, Longerich HP (1997) Ultra-trace element analysis of NIST SRM 616 and 614 using laser ablation microprobe inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LAM–ICP-MS): a comparison with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Geostand Newsl 21:191–203

  17. Ihlen PM (2000) Utilisation of sillimanite minerals, their geology, and potential occurrences in Norway—an overview. Norg Geol Unders Bull 436:113–128

  18. Ihlen PM, Marker M (1998) Kyanite-rich metasomatic rocks along crustal-scale shear zones in the Baltic Shield: evidence of shear induced fluid migration during tectonic dissection of Palaeoproterozoic supracrustal sequences? In: Phillippov N (ed) Abstract volume for Svekalapko Europrobe Project Workshop 1998, Repino, Russia. The Ministry of Natural Resources of Russian Federation/State Company ‘Mineral’, pp 25–26

  19. IOTA® (2005) IOTA® high-purity quartz. Accessed 20th May 2005. http://www.iotaquartz.com/welcome.html

  20. Korneliussen A, Sawyer EW (1989) The geochemistry of Lower Proterozoic mafic to felsic igneous rocks, Rombak Window, North Norway. Norg Geol Unders Bull 415:7–21

  21. Korneliussen A, Wanvik JE, Müller A, Ihlen PM (2006) Kystnære kvartsressurser i Hordaland. Geological Survey of Norway, Report 2006.045

  22. Kyanite Mining Corporation (2005) Kyanite Mining Corporation—our facilities. Accessed 10th May 2005. http://www.kyanite.com/index.html

  23. Larsen RB, Henderson I, Ihlen PM, Jacamon F (2004a) Distribution and petrogenetic behaviour of trace elements in granitic pegmatite quartz from South Norway. Contrib Mineral Petrol 147:615–628

  24. Larsen RB, Jacamon F, Ihlen PM, Henderson I (2004b) Natural refinement of quartz raw materials for the production of polycrystalline silicon. In: Pecchio M et al (eds) Applied Mineralogy—developments in science and technology, vol. 2. ICAM-BR, Sao Paulo, pp 693–696

  25. Larsson D (2001) Transition of granite to quartz–kyanite rock at Hålsjöberg, southern Sweden: consequence of acid leaching and later metamorphism. GFF 123:237–246

  26. McCauley JF (1961) Carolina Geological Society Guidebook. Division of Geology, State Development Board, Columbia, S.C., Geological Notes 5/5, p 13

  27. Moore P (2005) High-purity quartz. Ind Miner 455:53–57 (August)

  28. Müller A, Seltmann R, Behr H-J (2000) Application of cathodoluminescence to magmatic quartz in a tin granite—case study from the Schellerhau Granite Complex, Eastern Erzgebirge, Germany. Miner Depos 35:169–189

  29. Müller A, Lennox P, Trzebski R (2002) Cathodoluminescence and micro structural evidence for crystallisation and deformation processes in quartz of S- and I-type granites in the Eastern Lachlan Fold Belt (SE Australia). Contrib Mineral Petrol 143:510–524

  30. Müller A, Rene M, Behr H-J, Kronz A (2003a) Trace elements and cathodoluminescence of igneous quartz in topaz granites from the Hub Stock (Slavkovský Les Mts., Czech Republic). Mineral Petrol 79:167–191

  31. Müller A, Wiedenbeck M, van den Kerkhof AM, Kronz A, Simon K (2003b) Trace elements in quartz—a combined electron microprobe, secondary ion mass spectrometry, laser-ablation ICP-MS, and cathodoluminescence study. Eur J Mineral 15:747–763

  32. Müller A, Wanvik JE, Kronz A (2005) Norwegian kyanite quartzites—potential resources of high-purity quartz? Norg geologiske undersøkelse, Rapport 2005.039

  33. Norwegian Crystallites AS (2006) Norwegian Crystallites AS-products-crystal quartz analyses. Accessed 20th September 2006. http://www.norcryst.no

  34. Nystuen JP (1969) Precambrian ash-flow tuff and associated volcanic rocks at Elverum, southern Norway. Norg Geol Unders Bull 258:240–241

  35. Passchier CW, Trouw RAJ (1998) Microtectonics. Springer, Berlin, pp 289

  36. Pearce NJG, Perkins WT, Westgate JW, Gorton MP, Jackson SE, Neal CR, Chenery SP (1997) A compilation of new and published major and trace element data for NIST SRM 610 and NIST SRM 612 glass reference materials. Geostand Newsl 21:115–144

  37. Sawyer E (1986) Metamorphic assemblages and conditions in the Rombak basement window. Geological Survey of Norway, Report 88.116

  38. Schroeder E, Hamester M, Kaiser M (1998) Properties and characteristics of a laser ablation ICP-MS system for the quantitative elemental analysis of glasses. Appl Surf Sci 127–129:292–298

  39. Spear FS, Wark D (2004) TITANiQ: potential applications of the Ti-in-quartz (+rutile) thermometer in metamorphic rocks. Eos Trans AGU, Joint Assembly Suppl, Abstract 85:JA491

  40. Spence WH, Worthington JP, Jones EM, Kiff IT (1980) Origin of the gold mineralization at the Haile Mine, Lancaster County, South Carolina. Min Eng 32:70–73

  41. Tveten E, Lutro O, Thorsnes T (1998) Geologisk kart over Norge, berggrunnskart Ålesund, 1: 250.000. Norges geologiske undersøkelse, Trondheim, Norway

  42. Van den Kerkhof AM, Müller A (1999) Fluid inclusion re-equilibration and trace element redistribution in quartz: observations by cathodoluminescence microscopy. ECROFI XV Abstracts, Terra Nostra 99/6:161–162

  43. Van den Kerkhof AM, Kronz A, Simon K, Riganti A, Scherer T (2004a) Origin and evolution of Archean quartzites from the Nondweni greenstone belt (South Africa): inferences from a multidisciplinary study. S Afr J Geol 107:559–576

  44. Van den Kerkhof AM, Kronz A, Simon K, Scherer T (2004b) Fluid-controlled quartz recovery in granulite as revealed by cathodoluminescence and trace element analysis (Bamble sector, Norway). Contrib Mineral Petrol 146:637–652

  45. Wanvik JE (1998) Kyanite investigations in Tverrådalen, Surnadal. Geological Survey of Norway, Report 1998.080

  46. Wanvik JE (2004) Supplerende kvartsundersøkelser på Saltfjellet. Geological Survey of Norway, Report 2003.106

  47. Wark DA, Watson EB (2006) TitaniQ: a titanium-in-quartz geothermometer. Contrib Mineral Petrol 152:743–754

  48. Wark DA, Anderson AT, Watson EB (2004) Probing Ti in quartz: application of the TITANiQ thermometer to the Bishop Tuff. Eos Trans AGU, Joint Assembly Suppl, Abstract 85:JA494

  49. Willner A, Schreyer W, Moore JM (1990) Peraluminous metamorphic rocks from the Namaqualand metamorphic complex (South Africa): geochemical evidence of an exhalation-related, sedimentary origin on a Mid-Proterozoic rift system. Chem Geol 81:221–240

Download references

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by the Geological Survey of Norway Project 286100. The authors are grateful to R.B. Larsen and S. Swanson for their helpful reviews. The data from the Rio Levele deposit are included with the permission of the National Directorate of Geology, Mozambique. We greatly appreciate the critical comments and language improvement of R. Boyd.

Author information

Correspondence to Axel Müller.

Additional information

Editorial handling: B. Lehmann

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Müller, A., Ihlen, P.M., Wanvik, J.E. et al. High-purity quartz mineralisation in kyanite quartzites, Norway. Miner Deposita 42, 523–535 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00126-007-0124-8

Download citation

Keywords

  • Quartz
  • Kyanite quartzite
  • LA–ICP-MS
  • Norway