Advertisement

Mineralium Deposita

, Volume 41, Issue 5, pp 469–481 | Cite as

Mineralogy and geochemistry of metalliferous black slates in the okcheon metamorphic belt, Korea: a metamorphic analogue of black shales in the South China block

  • Gi Young Jeong
Article

Abstract

Metalliferous black slates, which were locally exploited for their low-quality coal, are distributed in the Late Proterozoic to Paleozoic Okcheon Metamorphic Belt (OMB) of the Korean Peninsula. The mineralogy of the fine matrix is dominated by either quartz–(Ba, V)–mica–graphite or Quartz-Ba-feldspar–graphite. Polycrystalline submillimeter ellipsoids and elongate lenses aligned along foliations and veinlets are scattered through the fine matrix. Both ellipsoids and veinlets include many minor minerals containing rare elements: titanite, apatite, allanite, rutile, polycrase, barite, uraninite, xenotime, armenite, zircon, molybdenite, and sphalerite. Large graphite–apatite ellipsoids (nodules) with widths of several centimeters also occur in the highly carbonaceous black slates. Goldmanite occurs locally as porphyroblasts. The maximum rare element contents are: Ba 9.7%, V 2.04%, Mo 0.13%, U 0.11%, Cr 0.33%, Cu 254 ppm, Ni 479 ppm, Zn 607 ppm, Y 255 ppm, platinum-group element (PGE) + Au 309 ppb, and carbon 57%. The occurrence of the black slates and their elemental abundances suggests that most of the rare elements were accumulated from seawater in an oxygen-poor environment. However, the high Ba content of the OMB black slates indicates some hydrothermal input into an organic-rich basin. Although metamorphism and multiple deformations prevent a direct temporal and spatial correlation, metal abundances and a close association with graphite–apatite nodules and low-quality coal suggest that the OMB black slates are metamorphosed analogues of the Early Cambrian Ba–V deposits hosted by the black shales in the South China Block.

Keywords

Black shale Korea Uranium Vanadium Barite 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by the Korea Science and Engineering Foundation (Project KOSEF R01-2000-000-00053-0). Comments from A.C. Brown, R.I. Grauch, and an anonymous reviewer improved the manuscript.

References

  1. Arthur MA, Sageman BB (1994) Marine black shales: depositional environments of ancient deposits. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 22:499–551Google Scholar
  2. Chang KH (2004) Okchon metamorphic belt and yellow-sea transform fault. Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of Korea. pp 71–72 (Abstract)Google Scholar
  3. Chen N, Yang X, Liu D, Xiao X, Fan D, Wang L (1990) Lower Cambrian black rock series and associated stratiform deposits in southern China. Chinese Journal of Geochemistry 8:244–255Google Scholar
  4. Cheong C-S, Jeong GY, Kim H, Choi M-S, Lee S-H, Cho M (2003) Early Permian peak metamorphism recorded in U–Pb system of black slates from the Ogcheon metamorphic belt, South Korea, and its tectonic implication. Chem Geol 193:81–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cho M, Kim H (2002) Metamorphic evolution of the Ogcheon metamorphic belt: review of recent studies and remaining problems. Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea 11:121–137Google Scholar
  6. Chough SK, Kwon ST, Ree JH, Choi DK (2000) Tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the Korean peninsula: a review and new view. Earth-Sci Rev 52:175–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cluzel D, Cadet JP, Lapierre H (1990) Geodynamics of the Ogcheon Belt (South Korea). Tectonophysics 183:41–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Coveney RM, Chen N (1991) Ni–Mo–PGE–Au–rich ores in Chinese black shales and speculations on possible analogues in the United States. Miner Depos 26:83–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Coveney RM, Martin SP (1983) Molybdenum and other heavy metals of the Mecca quarry and Logan quarry shales. Econ Geol 78:132–149Google Scholar
  10. Coveney RM Jr, Grauch RI, Murowchick JB (1994) The geologic setting of precious metal-bearing Ni–Mo ore beds. Soc Econ Geol Newsletter 18:1, 6–11Google Scholar
  11. Douville E, Bienvenu P, Charlou JL, Donval JP, Fouquet Y, Appriou P, Gamo T (1999) Yttrium and rare earth elements in fluids from various deep-sea hydrothermal systems. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 63:627–643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fan D (1983) Polyelements in the Lower Cambrian black shale series in southern China. In: Augustithis SS (ed) The significance of trace elements in solving petrogenetic problems and controversies. Theophrastus, Athens, pp 447–474Google Scholar
  13. Holland HD (1979) Metals in black shales—a reassessment. Econ Geol 74:1676–1679Google Scholar
  14. Jeong GY, Kim YH (1999) Goldmanite from the black slates of the Ogcheon belt, Korea. Mineral Mag 63:253–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jeong GY, Lee SH (2001) Form of molybdenum in the Carbonaceous black slates of the Ogcheon Belt. Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea 14:52–57Google Scholar
  16. Kang J-H, Lee CG (2003) Geological structures of Okcheon Metamorphic Zone in the Goesan area, Korea. Journal of the Geological Society of Korea 39:99–114Google Scholar
  17. Kim H, Cho M (1999) Polymetamorphism of Ogcheon Supergroup in the Miwon area, central Ogcheon metamorphic belt, South Korea. Geosci J 3:151–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kim H, Cheong C-S, Cho M, Jeong GY, Choi MS (2001) Geochronologic evidence for Late Paleozoic orogeny in the Ogcheon metamorphic belt, South Korea. In: Abstracts of the Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of America, Paper No. 157-0, Boston, MA, 5–8 Nov 2001Google Scholar
  19. Kim JH (1989) Geochemistry and genesis of the Guryongsan (Ogcheon) uraniferous black slate. J Korean Inst Mining Geol 22:35–63Google Scholar
  20. Koh HJ, Kim JH (1995) Deformation sequence and characteristics of the Ogcheon Supergroup in the Goesan area, central Ogcheon belt, Korea. Journal of the Geological Society of Korea 31:271–298Google Scholar
  21. Kříbek B, Hladíkov J, Žák K, Bendl J, Pudilová M, Uhlík Z (1996) Barite-hyalophane sulfidic ores at Rozna Massif, Czech Republic: Metamorphosed black shale-hosted submarine exhalative mineralization. Econ Geol 91:14–35Google Scholar
  22. Lee D-J (1986) Mineralogy of low-grade uranium ores in the black slate of the Ogcheon Group, Korea. J Korean Inst Mining Geol 19:133–146Google Scholar
  23. Lee MS, Chon HT (1980) Geochemical correlations between uranium and other components in U-bearing formations of Ogcheon Belt. J Korean Inst Mining Geol 13:241–246Google Scholar
  24. Lee DS, Chang KH, Lee HY (1972) Discovery of Archaeocyatha from Hyangsanri Dolomite Formation of the Ogcheon System and its significance. Journal of the Geological Society of Korea 18:191–197Google Scholar
  25. Lee DS, Yun S, Lee JH, Kim JT (1986) Lithological and structural controls and geochemistry of uranium deposits in the Ogcheon black-slate formation. J Korean Inst Mining Geol 19:19–41Google Scholar
  26. Lee H-Y, Yu KM, Lee SJ (1989) Microfossils from the limestone pebbles of the Hwanggangri Formation and the Hyangsanri Dolomite in the Okcheon zone, South Korea. Journal of the Paleontological Society of Korea 5:91–101Google Scholar
  27. Lee CH, Lee HK, Shin M-A (1996) Geochemistry vanadium-bearing coal formation in metapelite of the Ogcheon Supergroup from the Hoenam area, Korea. Econ Environ Geol 29:471–481Google Scholar
  28. Lee K-S, Chang H-W, Park, K-H (1998) Neoproterozoic bimodal volcanism in the central Ogcheon belt, Korea: age and tectonic implication. Precambrian Res 89:47–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Leventhal JS (1991) Comparison of organic geochemistry and metal enrichment in two black shales: Cambrian Alum Shale and Devonian Chattanooga Shale of United States. Miner Depos 26:104–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Li YH (1991) Distribution patterns of the elements in the ocean: a synthesis. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 55:3223–3240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Long H-B, Long J-C, Zhong Y-R, Zhuang S-J, Liu T (1994) Existence of hyalophanite in the Zhangcun-Zhengfang black shales vanadium deposits: evidence for a hydrothermal genesis. Chin Sci Bull 39:1824–1827Google Scholar
  32. Lott DA, Coveney RM, Jr, Murowchick JB, Grauch RI (1999) Sedimentary exhalative nickel–molybdenum ores in South China. Econ Geol 94:1051–1066Google Scholar
  33. Mason B, Moore CB (1982) Principles of geochemistry. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  34. Min K, Cho M (1998) Metamorphic evolution of the northwestern Ogcheon metamorphic belt, South Korea. Lithos 43:31–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Murowchick JB, Coveney RM Jr, Grauch RI, Eldridge CS, Shelton KL (1994) Cyclic variations of sulfur isotopes in Cambrian stratabound Ni–Mo–(PGE–Au) ores of southern China. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 58:1813–1823CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Na KC, Lee DJ, Kim KH, Kim JT (1988) Study on the graphitization and stable isotope ratios of carbonaceous materials in metapelites of Ogcheon Group. Journal of the Geological Society of Korea 5:91–101Google Scholar
  37. Oh CH, Kim ST, Lee JH (1995) The PT condition and timing of the main metamorphism in the southwestern part of the Okcheon metamorphic belt. Journal of the Geological Society of Korea 31:343–361Google Scholar
  38. Peter JM, Simoneit BRT, Kawka OE, Scott SD (1990) Liquid hydrocarbon-bearing inclusions in modern hydrothermal chimneys and mounds from the southern trough of Guymas Basin, Gulf of California. Appl Geochem 5:51–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ree J-H, Cho M, Kwon S-T, Nakamura E (1996) Possible eastward extension of Chinese collision belt in South Korea: the Imjingang Belt. Geology 24:1071–1074CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ree JH, Kwon SH, Park YD, Kwon ST, Park SH (2001) Pre-tectonic and post-tectonic emplacements of the granitoids in the south central Okcheon belt, South Korea: implications for the timing of strike–slip shearing and thrusting. Tectonics 20:850–867CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Shim JC, Moon H-S, Oh JH (1995) Mineralogy of graphitic nodules distributed in black shales in the Ogcheon Group. Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea 8:108–117Google Scholar
  42. So C-S, Kang J-K (1978) Mineralogy and geochemistry of uranium-bearing black slates in the Ogcheon Group, Korea. Journal of the Geological Society of Korea 14:93–102Google Scholar
  43. Steiner M, Wallis E, Erdtmann B-D, Zhao Y, Yang R (2001) Submarine-hydrothermal exhalative ore layers in black shales from South China and associated fossils—insights into a Lower Cambrian facies and bio-evolution. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimitol Palaeoecol 169:165–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Turekian KK, Wedepohl KH (1961) Distribution of the elements in some major units of the Earth’s crust. Geol Soc Amer Bull 72:175–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Vine JD, Tourtelot ER (1970) Geochemistry of black shale deposits—a summary report. Econ Geol 65:253–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Yin A, Nie S (1993) An indentation model for the North and South China collision and the development of the Tan-Lu and Honam fault systems, eastern Asia. Tectonics 12:801–813CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Earth and Environmental SciencesAndong National UniversityAndongSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations