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ELA-ICP-MS U–Pb zircon geochronology of regional volcanism hosting the Bajo de la Alumbrera Cu–Au deposit: implications for porphyry-related mineralization

Abstract

ELA-ICP-MS U–Pb zircon geochronology has been used to show that the porphyritic intrusions related to the formation of the Bajo de la Alumbrera porphyry Cu–Au deposit, NW Argentina, are cogenetic with stratigraphically well-constrained volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the Late Miocene Farallón Negro Volcanic Complex. Zircon geochronology for intrusions in this deposit and the host volcanic sequence show that multiple mineralized porphyries were emplaced in a volcanic complex that developed over 1.5 million years. Volcanism occurred in a multi-vent volcanic complex in a siliciclastic intermontane basin. The complex evolved from early mafic-intermediate effusive phases to a later silicic explosive phase associated with mafic intrusions. Zircons from the basal mafic-intermediate lavas have ages that range from 8.46±0.14 to 7.94±0.27 Ma. Regionally extensive silicic explosive volcanism occurred at ~8.0 Ma (8.05±0.13 and 7.96±0.11 Ma), which is co-temporal with intrusion of the earliest mineralized porphyries at Bajo de la Alumbrera (8.02±0.14 and 7.98±0.14 Ma). Regional uplift and erosion followed during which the magmatic-hydrothermal system was probably unroofed. Shortly thereafter, dacitic lava domes were extruded (7.95±0.17 Ma) and rhyolitic diatremes (7.79±0.13 Ma) deposited thick tuff blankets across the region. Emplacement of large intermediate composition stocks occurred at 7.37±0.22 Ma, shortly before renewed magmatism occurred at Bajo de la Alumbrera (7.10±0.07 Ma). The latest porphyry intrusive event is temporally associated with new ore-bearing magmatic-hydrothermal fluids. Other dacitic intrusions are associated with subeconomic deposits that formed synchronously with the mineralized porphyries at Bajo de la Alumbrera. However, their emplacement continued (from 7.10± 0.06 to 6.93±0.07 Ma) after the final intrusion at Bajo de al Alumbrera. Regional volcanism had ceased by 6.8 Ma (6.92±0.07 Ma).

The brief history of the volcanic complex hosting the Bajo de la Alumbrera Cu–Au deposit differs from that of other Andean provinces hosting porphyry deposits. For example, at the El Salvador porphyry copper district in Chile, magmatism related to Cu mineralization was episodic in regional igneous activity that occurred over tens of millions of years. Bajo de la Alumbrera resulted from the superposition of multiple porphyry-related hydrothermal systems, temporally separated by a million years. It appears that the metal budget in porphyry ore deposits is not simply a function of their longevity and/or the superposition of multiple porphyry systems. Nor is it a function of the duration of the associated cycle of magmatism. Instead, the timing of processes operating in the parental magma body is the controlling factor in the formation of a fertile porphyry-related ore system.

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Acknowledgements

This project forms part of the first author's doctoral research at the University of Queensland, which was funded by an Australian Postgraduate Award scholarship. MIM Exploration and Minera Alumbrera are thanked for financial and logistical support and access to the Farallón Negro district. Mario Alderete from Yacimientos Mineros Agua de Dionisio (YMAD) is also thanked for granting initial access. The first author would like to thank the RSES for access to the ELA-ICP-MS and mineral separation facilities. SEM images were obtained with the help of Graeme Auchterlonie from the Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, the University of Queensland. Thanks are also due to Rick Valenta, Steve Brown, John Proffett, Jim Dunlap, Ron Berry, Sue Keay, and David Keough and the many others who have been involved with the project. We thank Noel White for his insightful and thorough reviews of the manuscript resulting in substantial improvements. Richard Tosdal, Richard Goldfarb, Jeremy Richards and one other anonymous reviewer are acknowledged for their constructive comments that helped refine the manuscript.

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Harris, A.C., Allen, C.M., Bryan, S.E. et al. ELA-ICP-MS U–Pb zircon geochronology of regional volcanism hosting the Bajo de la Alumbrera Cu–Au deposit: implications for porphyry-related mineralization. Miner Deposita 39, 46–67 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00126-003-0381-0

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Keywords

  • Copper
  • Gold
  • Lava domes
  • Porphyry
  • U–Pb geochronology