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Mineralium Deposita

, Volume 38, Issue 5, pp 519–537 | Cite as

Source and evolution of ore-forming hydrothermal fluids in the northern Iberian Pyrite Belt massive sulphide deposits (SW Spain): evidence from fluid inclusions and stable isotopes

  • Javier Sánchez-España
  • Francisco Velasco
  • Adrian J. Boyce
  • Anthony E. Fallick
Article

Abstract.

A fluid inclusion and stable isotopic study has been undertaken on some massive sulphide deposits (Aguas Teñidas Este, Concepción, San Miguel, San Telmo and Cueva de la Mora) located in the northern Iberian Pyrite Belt. The isotopic analyses were mainly performed on quartz, chlorite, carbonate and whole rock samples from the stockworks and altered footwall zones of the deposits, and also on some fluid inclusion waters. Homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions in quartz mostly range from 120 to 280 °C. Salinity of most fluid inclusions ranges from 2 to 14 wt% NaCl equiv. A few cases with Th=80–110 °C and salinity of 16–24 wt% NaCl equiv., have been also recognized. In addition, fluid inclusions from the Soloviejo Mn–Fe-jaspers (160–190 °C and ≈6 wt% NaCl equiv.) and some Late to Post-Hercynian quartz veins (130–270 °C and ≈4 wt% NaCl equiv.) were also studied. Isotopic results indicate that fluids in equilibrium with measured quartz (δ18Ofluid ≈–2 to 4‰), chlorites (δ18Ofluid ≈8–14‰, δDfluid ≈–45 to –27‰), whole rocks (δ18Ofluid ≈4–7‰, δDfluid ≈–15 to –10‰), and carbonates (δ18Oankerite ≈14.5–16‰, δ13Cfluid =–11 to –5‰) evolved isotopically during the lifetime of the hydrothermal systems, following a waxing/waning cycle at different temperatures and water/rock ratios. The results (fluid inclusions, δ18O, δD and δ13C values) point to a highly evolved seawater, along with a variable (but significant) contribution of other fluid reservoirs such as magmatic and/or deep metamorphic waters, as the most probable sources for the ore-forming fluids. These fluids interacted with the underlying volcanic and sedimentary rocks during convective circulation through the upper crust.

Keywords.

Fluid inclusions Iberian Pyrite Belt Massive sulphide deposits Ore-forming fluids Stable isotopes 

Notes

Acknowledgements.

The Department of Education, Universities and Research of the Basque Government financially supported J.S.E. with a PhD fellowship. Raúl Hidalgo and Kerr Anderson from Navan (Huelva) S.A. are gratefully thanked for permission to collect drill-cores and for mine access. We thank Mike Solomon and Dave Lentz for considered and helpful reviews. The editorial comments of Bernd Lehmann are sincerely acknowledged. This manuscript has also benefited from comments of Fernando Tornos (IGME). SUERC is funded by the Scottish Universities consortium, and NERC. A.J.B. is funded by NERC support of the Isotope Communities Support Facility at SUERC.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag  2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Javier Sánchez-España
    • 1
    • 3
  • Francisco Velasco
    • 1
  • Adrian J. Boyce
    • 2
  • Anthony E. Fallick
    • 2
  1. 1.Dpto. Mineralogía y Petrología. Universidad del País Vasco, Apdo. 644BilbaoSpain
  2. 2.Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre, Scottish Enterprise Technology Park, East Kilbride G75 0QF, Scotland, UKBilbaoSpain
  3. 3.: TERRA NOVA S.L., Colón de Larreátegui, 32, 1ª, 48009BilbaoSpain

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