Immunological heterogeneity in Type I diabetes: presence of distinct autoantibody patterns in patients with acute onset and slowly progressive disease
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Type I diabetes mellitus may represent a heterogeneous disorder with a distinct pathogenesis in patients with young and adult onset of the disease. To investigate whether serological markers directed to different autoantigens have the potential to distinguish acute onset from slowly progressive Type I diabetes we analysed antibodies to tyrosine phosphatases IA-2/ICA512 (IA-2A) and IA-2β/phogrin (IA2βA), antibodies to GAD65 (GADA) and cytoplasmic islet cell antibodies (ICA) in a non-selected group of diabetic patients clinically classified as having Type I or Type II diabetes at diagnosis. Both IA-2A and IA-2βA were found to be positively associated with onset before the age of 20 years and the presentation of classical features of Type I diabetes. In Type I diabetes 56 % (112/200) of patients were positive for IA-2A and 38 % (76/200) for IA-2βA. In contrast, only 1 of 785 (0.1 %) patients with Type II diabetes had IA-2A and all of them were negative for IA-2βA (p < 0.001). Among the patients with Type II diabetes 7.6 % (n = 60) were ICA positive and 2.8 % (n = 22) had GADA suggesting the presence of slowly progressive Type I diabetes. GADA were found in 8 of 60 (13.3 %) ICA positive subjects which was lower than the percentage detected in patients with acute onset of diabetes (115/157 73.2 %) (p < 0.001). Blocking of double antibody positive sera showed that only 3 of 8 (37.5 %) patients with slowly progressive diabetes had ICA restricted to GAD or IA-2 whereas ICA were completely inhibited in 12 of 20 (60.0 %) patients with Type I diabetes. Among 193 patients with Type II diabetes available for follow-up, 35 % of ICA positives, 58 % of GADA positives and 60 % of those positive for both markers required insulin by 3 years. However, using strict criteria for the switch to insulin treatment the corresponding sensitivity of each marker was only low (9 %, 10 % and 5 %).
We show that clinical subtypes of Type I diabetes are associated with distinct humoral autoimmunity. IA-2A and GADA were associated with classical features of Type I diabetes whereas GADA and an uncharacterized ICA subspecificity indicate slowly progressive disease. [Diabetologia (1998) 41: 891–897]