Diabetologia

pp 1–8

The islet endothelial cell: a novel contributor to beta cell secretory dysfunction in diabetes

Review

DOI: 10.1007/s00125-017-4272-9

Cite this article as:
Hogan, M.F. & Hull, R.L. Diabetologia (2017). doi:10.1007/s00125-017-4272-9

Abstract

The pancreatic islet is highly vascularised, with an extensive capillary network. In addition to providing nutrients and oxygen to islet endocrine cells and transporting hormones to the peripheral circulation, islet capillaries (comprised primarily of islet endothelial cells) are an important source of signals that enhance survival and function of the islet beta cell. In type 2 diabetes, and animal models thereof, evidence exists of morphological and functional abnormalities in these islet endothelial cells. In diabetes, islet capillaries are thickened, dilated and fragmented, and islet endothelial cells express markers of inflammation and activation. In vitro data suggest that this dysfunctional islet endothelial phenotype may contribute to impaired insulin release from the beta cell. This review examines potential candidate molecules that may mediate the positive effects of islet endothelial cells on beta cell survival and function under normal conditions. Further, it explores possible mechanisms underlying the development of islet endothelial dysfunction in diabetes and reviews therapeutic options for ameliorating this aspect of the islet lesion in type 2 diabetes. Finally, considerations regarding differences between human and rodent islet vasculature and the potentially unforeseen negative consequences of strategies to expand the islet vasculature, particularly under diabetic conditions, are discussed.

Keywords

Beta cell Capillary Diabetes Endothelial cell Inflammation Insulin secretion Islet Microvasculature Review 

Abbreviations

AGE

Advanced glycation endproducts

COX2

Cyclooxygenase 2

CTGF

Connective tissue growth factor

GK

Goto–Kakizaki

HGF

Hepatocyte growth factor

NOS3

Endothelial nitric oxide synthase

RAS

Renin–angiotensin system

SDT

Spontaneous Diabetic Torii

THBS1

Thrombospondin-1

VEGF

Vascular endothelial growth factor

ZDF

Zucker Diabetic Fatty

Supplementary material

125_2017_4272_MOESM1_ESM.pptx (1.5 mb)
ESM 1(PPTX 1.53 mb)

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and NutritionVA Puget Sound Health Care System (151)SeattleUSA
  2. 2.Department of MedicineUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA

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