MicroRNA 21 targets BCL2 mRNA to increase apoptosis in rat and human beta cells
The role of beta cell microRNA (miR)-21 in the pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes has been controversial. Here, we sought to define the context of beta cell miR-21 upregulation in type 1 diabetes and the phenotype of beta cell miR-21 overexpression through target identification.
Islets were isolated from NOD mice and mice treated with multiple low doses of streptozotocin, as a mouse model of diabetes. INS-1 832/13 beta cells and human islets were treated with IL-1β, IFN-γ and TNF-α to mimic the milieu of early type 1 diabetes. Cells and islets were transfected with miR-21 mimics or inhibitors. Luciferase assays and polyribosomal profiling (PRP) were performed to define miR-21–target interactions.
Beta cell miR-21 was increased in in vivo models of type 1 diabetes and cytokine-treated cells/islets. miR-21 overexpression decreased cell count and viability, and increased cleaved caspase 3 levels, suggesting increased cell death. In silico prediction tools identified the antiapoptotic mRNA BCL2 as a conserved miR-21 target. Consistent with this, miR-21 overexpression decreased BCL2 transcript and B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) protein production, while miR-21 inhibition increased BCL2 protein levels and reduced cleaved caspase 3 levels after cytokine treatment. miR-21-mediated cell death was abrogated in 828/33 cells, which constitutively overexpress Bcl2. Luciferase assays suggested a direct interaction between miR-21 and the BCL2 3′ untranslated region. With miR-21 overexpression, PRP revealed a shift of the Bcl2 message towards monosome-associated fractions, indicating inhibition of Bcl2 translation. Finally, overexpression in dispersed human islets confirmed a reduction in BCL2 transcripts and increased cleaved caspase 3 production.
In contrast to the pro-survival role reported in other systems, our results demonstrate that miR-21 increases beta cell death via BCL2 transcript degradation and inhibition of BCL2 translation.
KeywordsAnimal – mouse Basic science Beta cell signal transduction Cell lines Islet degeneration and damage Islets
Acridium orange/propidium iodide
Activating transcription factor 4
B cell lymphoma 2
Binding immunoglobulin protein
C/EBP homologous protein
Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion
Locked nucleic acid
Multiple low-dose streptozotocin
Programmed cell death 4
Quantitative real-time PCR
Reactive oxygen species