Validation of metabolic syndrome score by confirmatory factor analysis in children and adults and prediction of cardiometabolic outcomes in adults
- First Online:
- Cite this article as:
- Viitasalo, A., Lakka, T.A., Laaksonen, D.E. et al. Diabetologia (2014) 57: 940. doi:10.1007/s00125-014-3172-5
- 867 Downloads
We validated the metabolic syndrome (MetS) score by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in children, middle-aged men, and older women and men and by investigating the relationships of the MetS score to incident type 2 diabetes, myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular and overall death in middle-aged men.
We assessed the core features of MetS, calculated the MetS score using z scores for waist circumference, insulin, glucose, triacylglycerols, HDL-cholesterol and blood pressure, and carried out CFA to investigate whether MetS represents a single entity in population samples of 491 children, 1,900 middle-aged men, 614 older women and 555 older men from Finland. We also followed-up incident type 2 diabetes for 11 years and other outcomes for 17–18 years in middle-aged men.
We carried out second-order CFAs in which the MetS was represented by a second-order latent variable underlying four latent variables characterised by abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and raised blood pressure in different age groups. These second-order factors and factors derived from first-order CFA using previously proposed models were strongly associated with a composite MetS score in all age groups (r = 0.84–0.94) and similarly predicted type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular outcomes and mortality in middle-aged men. The risk of type 2 diabetes, myocardial infarction, cardiovascular death and overall death increased 3.67-, 1.38-, 1.56- and 1.44-fold, respectively, for a 1 SD increase in the MetS score.
The MetS can be described as a single entity in all age groups. The MetS score is a valid tool for research evaluating cardiometabolic risk in different age groups. Further research is needed to define cut-off points for risk estimation in clinical practice.
KeywordsCardiovascular Children Confirmatory factor analysis Metabolic syndrome Metabolic syndrome score
Confirmatory factor analysis
Comparative fit index
Mean arterial pressure
Root mean square of approximation