Molecular identification of the yellow fruit color (c) locus in diploid strawberry: a candidate gene approach
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A candidate gene approach was used to determine the likely molecular identity of the c locus (yellow fruit color) in Fragaria vesca, a diploid (2n=2x=14) strawberry. Using PCR with degenerate primer pairs, intron-containing segments of structural genes coding for chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI), flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR), anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) and one Del-like regulatory gene in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway, were amplified, cloned and sequenced. Intron length polymorphisms for each of these genes were detected among three diploid varieties: F. vesca Alpine variety ’Yellow Wonder’ (YW) (Europe); DN1C, a F. vesca clone collected from Northern California; and Fragaria nubicola FRA520, a U.S.D.A. accession collected in Pakistan. Using F2 generations of the crosses DN1C×YW and YW×FRA520 as mapping populations, the six candidate genes were mapped in relation to previously mapped randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and morphological markers. The F3H gene was linked without recombination to the c locus in linkage group I, while the other five candidate genes mapped to different linkage groups. These results suggest that the wild-type allele (C) of the c (yellow fruit color) locus encodes an F3H necessary for red fruit color in F. vesca.
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