Detecting and mapping repulsion-phase linkage in polyploids with polysomic inheritance
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It has been suggested that ratios of coupling- to repulsion-phase linked markers can be used to distinguish between allopolyploids and autopolyploids, because repulsion-phase linkages are much more difficult to detect in autopolyploids with polysomic inheritance than allopolyploids with disomic inheritance. In this report, we analyze the segregation pattern of repulsion-phase linked markers in polyploids without complete preferential pairing. The observed repulsion-phase recombination fraction (R) in such polyploids is composed of a fraction due to crossing-over (Rc) and another fraction due to independent assortment (Ri). Ri is the minimum distance that can be detected between repulsion-phase linked markers. Because Ri is high in autopolyploids (0.3373, 0.4000, 0.4286 and 0.4444) for autopolyploids of 2n=4x, 6x, 8x and 10x), large population sizes are required to reliably detect repulsion linkages. In addition, the default linkage used in mapping-programs must be greater than the corresponding Ri to determine whether a polyploid is a true autopolyploid. Unfortunately, much lower default linkages than the Ris have been used in recent polyploid studies to determine polyploid type, and markers have been incorporated into polyploid maps based on the R values. Herein, we describe how mapping repulsion linkages can result in spurious results, and present methods to accurately detect the degree of preferential pairing in polyploids using repulsion linkage analysis.
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