Identification of several new classes of low-molecular-weight wheat gliadin-related proteins and genes
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During the initial phases of a wheat endosperm Expressed-Sequence-Tag (EST) project, several clones were determined to be related to wheat gliadin sequences, but not similar enough to be classified into any of the traditional gliadin families [α-, γ-, and ω-gliadins, low-molecular-weight (LMW) glutenins]. Complete sequences of these cDNA clones revealed four new classes of gliadin-related endosperm proteins, but lacking a prominent repeat domain which until now has been characteristic of the gliadins. Two of these classes are related to different minimally described groups of Triticeae endosperm proteins. One class of proteins, which has N-terminal amino-acid sequences matching members of a reported 25-kDa globulin family from wheat, is shown by amino-acid sequencing to match to a family of 25-kDa endosperm proteins, is encoded by a multigene family, and is most similar to the LMW-glutenins. A second new class shows N-terminal homologies to LMW secalins from rye, and has an amino-acid composition similar to wheat and barley LMW proteins with extraction properties similar to prolamins. The third class is most similar to α-gliadins, and the fourth class has no close association to previously described wheat endosperm proteins.
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