Phylogenetic relationships among Oryza species revealed by AFLP markers
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The genus Oryza to which cultivated rice belongs has 22 wild species. Seventy-seven accessions of 23 Oryza species, five related genera, and three outgroup taxa were fingerprinted using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). A total of 1191 polymorphic markers were obtained using five AFLP primer combinations. AFLP data were analyzed to study species relationships using different clustering algorithms, and the resulting phenograms were tested for stability and robustness. The findings suggest a common ancestry to the genus Oryza. Moreover, the results demonstrate that: (1) evolution in Oryza has followed a polyphyletic path wherein multiple lineages underwent independent divergence after separation early in the evolution from a common ancestor/pool of related taxa; (2) newly assigned genomes, GG for O. meyeriana and HHJJ for O. ridleyi complexes, are among the most diverged in the genus; (3) CCDD tetraploids have a relatively ancient origin among the Officinalis complex; (4) O. malampuzhaensis, O. indandamanica, O. alta, and O. grandiglumis are diverged enough to deserve species status; (5) O. officinalis and O. eichingeri (CC) are putative progenitors of O. minuta* O. malampuzhaensis and tetraploid O. punctata, respectively, (6) O. brachyantha is most diverged species in the genus. AFLP is reliable molecular technique and provides one of the most informative approaches to ascertain genetic relationships in Oryza, which may also be true for other related species/organisms.
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